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105 Cards in this Set

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what is psychology?
the explanation of the mind.
Greek: psyche and logos
-it is the SCIENCE of behavior and mental process
-why is it science? they follow the research process
2 types of behavior

mental processes
can be overt or covert

conscious and unconscious
origin of psychology
oriiginated from philosophy:
-locke and aristotle
and also based in biology:
-charles Darwin- studied survival of the species
-Francis Galton (1800s)
Heritability of traits
2 big ideas that came out of philosophy
empiricism: we can gain knowledge from observation

rationalism: gain knowledge through being logical
who is the father of psychology
Wilhelm Wundt
what did Wilhem experiment
-studied Introspection
~focus on conscious experience
~ did a simple study about hearing something and response time to say you heard it
-he trained william james
major perspectives in psychology
Psychodynamic: Psychoanylytic (freud) thought boys are really in love with their mothers

Behavioral: John Watson
B. F. Skinner
Focus on observable behavior
Humans learn how to behave
I yelled at my friend because I grew up in an environment where yelling was accepted

Humanistic:
Cognitive: Paradigm shift…
Focus on mental processes (e.g., memory, thinking)

Social-Cultural: Behavior varies across situations and cultures

Biopsychosocial approach: Integrative
Considers influence of nature and nurture (biology, learning, cultural influences)
what do psychologists do?
break up into 4 groups:
-Basic Research:science based. Pure science aimed at increasing the scientific knowledge base.
Biological Psychologists
Developmental Psychologists
Cognitive Psychologists
Personality Psychologists
Social Psychologists

-Applied Research: science to solve practical problems. Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Health Psychology
Environmental Psychology
Most of the “Basic Research” fields

Clinical: studies, assess and treat people (diagnos). Administer and interpret personality tests
Provide therapy
Manage mental health programs.

-psychiatric: medical. practiced by physicians who provide medical (for example drugs) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
Psychiatric
Psychological Research
Psychologists have found that studying your notes and then testing yourself as a study strategy is more effective in improving exam performance than simply studying your notes without testing yourself
Hindsight Bias
The I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon

There is always a common sense way to explain findings (hindsight bias)
-Separation weakens romantic attraction—out of sight, out of mind.
Or
-Separation strengthens romantic attraction—absence makes the heart grow fonder.
Confirmation Bias
The tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions/beliefs.

Looking only for confirming evidence ignores all other evidence

To be scientific you must try to find disconfirming evidence
What is the Scientific Method?
A systematic way of conducting research that progresses logically and extends our knowledge base.
The Research Process
Step 1: Establish a research question (should be very broad)
We often begin with a general question
E.g., What methods of studying lead to better memory over a long period of time?

Step 2: Develop a theory to answer your question
Theory: An explanation that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
E.g., Information is remembered longer if learning is distributed over a long period of time.


Step 3: Develop a hypothesis
A testable prediction about a specific set of variables, often implied by a theory


Step 4: Design the research
How do you test the hypothesis?

Step 5: Collect the Data
Step 6: Evaluate our data
Step 7: Interpret our data with respect to our theory
Step 8: Loop! (replication
what makes good research?
testable, what method was used? (case study, survey, sample), was the sample random and large (more than 100), having a control group (placebo), have consent, define operational differences
research methods
Descriptive Methods
Case study
Survey
Naturalistic observation

Correlational Methods

Experimental Methods
case study
One subject studied in depth

Example
Phineas Gage
limitation: we cannot generalize
surveys
A survey is the process of examining a phenomenon

Two common methods: paper and pen, or verbal

longitudinal: over time
cross sectional: done at 1 time

limitations: no cause/ effect
you dont know who you are surverying
Descriptive Methods: Naturalistic Observation
Observing behavior in the natural environment, without attempting to control or manipulate the situation
Correlational Research
Correlation = relationship between two variables; how does one variable change as another variable changes?
Correlation coefficient
statistical measure of a relationship


Direction = Can be positive (+) or negative (-)
Strength = Range from +1.0 to -1.0
Correlational Research:

Types of relations
Positive
As one variable increases so does the other

Negative
As one variable increases the other decreases
Possible Cause-Effect Relationships
low self esteem could cause depression

depression could cause low self esteem

distressing events or biological predisposition: can cause low self esteem or depression
What is an experiment
Method in which researcher manipulates one or more variables to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.
Key characteristics
Random assignment
Control group
concussion
any momentary lose of consciousness is the definition of a concussion
motion related damage
closed head injury
wipelash, brain bounces and hits back but then flings forward
what happens when you get a concussion
2 places:
coup injury- site of the blow to the brain (primary impact)

contre-coup injury: where the brain bounces off the skull. where your cerebellum is (secondary impact)
what happens to the brain with severe or multiple concussions?
it swells and cuts off brain area vital to survival. it needs time to heal in between each head injury or else the brain stays swollen and puts too much pressure on the brain stem= death
susceptability of the brain to shearing
usually forces whiplash. shearing happens in brain and nerve cells can actually tear
shearing equals DAI
major cause of damage in DAI is the tearing of axons, the nueral processes that allows the neuron (nerve cell) to communicate with another
what is a neuron ?
a.k.a. nerve cell
Basic building block of the nervous system
How our body transmits information

(look at drawing of it)
what is the structure of a neuron?
Cell body = soma
Life support of neuron

Dendrites
Receive information

Axons
Send information

Myelin sheath
Covers axon
Communication between Neurons
Synapse = juncture between 2 neurons
Synaptic cleft
What happens when the action potential reaches terminal vesicles
Release of neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters & Primary Functions
-Acetylcholine
Involved in muscle coordination
-Dopamine
Involved in movement and emotion
-Serotonin
Influences mood, sleep, and hunger
-GABA
Major inhibitory neurotransmitter
(alcohol turns this off)
-Endorphins
Natural opiate
The Nervous System


2 main systems
Central nervous system (CNS)

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Links CNS to sensory receptors, muscles & glands
Sensory neurons

Motor neurons

Interneurons
carry messages to CNS

carry messages away from CNS

in between sensory input and motor output
Remember the peripheral nervous system
Autonomic:
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
why do we care about neuropsychology?
b/c the brain controls/regulates most behavior: depression= seratonin, aggression= testosterone/esterogen, memory=hippocampus
how do we study the brain?
lesion studies: looking at different sections of the brain by destroying them

electroencephalograph (EEG)= brain waves
PET scans: injection of radioactive sugar allows researchers to observe brain activity
MRI: provides picture of brain. reveals structure
fMRI: function of each part of brain. 360 video of the brain.
what does each side of the brain look like?
you can cut the brain directly down the middle and they will look identical
corpus callosum
holds the 2 hemispheres together (women have thicker ones= we can multi task)
how do we study the brain?
callosotomy: split the brain in half! cut corpus callosum
why? people with epilepsy

hemispherectomy: removing half the brain!!! eventually your existing (the one they dont take out) hemisphere will do some work of the missing one
cerebral cortex
Wrinkled outer layer of the brain (called bark), the thicker the better

Gray matter

Conscious awareness

Higher-level thinking
structure of cerebral cortex
4 lobes within each hemisphere:
Frontal
Temporal
Parietal
Occipital
function of cerebral cortex
-Motor
Sends information
Controls body movement
-Sensory
Receives information
Frontal Lobe
speech, muscle movement, and planning/judgment; location of motor cortex

CEO of brain: reasoning, appropriateness, decision making, personality, seat of broca's area

left frontal lobe
involved in speaking, word formation
temporal lobe
location of auditory cortex


Associated with auditory processing
Helps us recognize objects and faces
Contains language area of the brain
Seat of the hippocampus
Seat of Wernicke’s area
Left temporal lobe
Processes incoming sounds
Parietal Lobe
location of sensory cortex


Spatial navigation
Integration of sensory info
Sensory cortex
Brain plasticity
= brain’s ability to modify itself, to reorganize in response to damage
Explains phantom limb syndrome
occipital love
location of visual cortex
Melding of brain areas
After amputation:
Healthy brain tissue with nothing to do!
The Brainstem
Most primitive part of the brain

Controls basic functions of life
Breathing, heart rate, swallowing

Includes:
Medulla- Controls heartbeat and breathing

Pons: Helps coordinate movement
Thalamus
Sits at the top of the brainstem

The switchboard operator
Receives information
Routes information

Reticular formation (= filter): passes through brainstem and thalamus
Plays role in controlling arousal
Cerebellum
Extends from the rear of the brainstem
Coordinates voluntary movement & balance
Limbic System
Gateway to higher brain functions
Donut shaped
Structures within the limbic system:
Hypothalamus
Amygdala
Hippocampu
amygdala
Composed of 2 lima-bean sized neural clusters
Involved in
Aggression and fear
Emotional memories
hypothalamus
Lies just below the thalamus
Directs maintenance activities (eating, drinking, regulating body temperature)
Reward-center of brain
Oversees pituitary gland
Secretes hormones that trigger the “master gland”
Hippocampus
Primary function: processing memory

Involved in learning
nature
46 chromosomes
Chromosomes contain DNA

Genes = segments of DNA
regular siblings
conceived during different pregnancies
fraternal twins
result of two different sperm and eggs but are conceived during the same pregnancy
identical twins
conceived during the same pregnancy from the same sperm and egg that split apart
nature on gender
Androgen
Insensitivity
Syndrome
AIS= XY but dont have enough hormones to have a penis. genetically a boy but treated like a girl.
david reimer
born a boy (penis got burnt off) raised as a girl (trying to achieve nurture overnature) he was clearly a boy, they couldn't hide it
abandon nurture v. mature
adopt nuture and nature
Nurture = Environment
Peer influence
Family influence
Wealth or poverty
Temperature
Culture
Education
Stress
Exercise
Parental Influence
Begins in utero
Early experiences foster brain development
Enriched environment leads to thicker brain cortex

Embryos receive different levels of nutrition, exposure to toxins… continues once we are outside of the womb.

In rat studies… randomly assign a group of rats to either impoverished environment or enriched environment… measure the thickness of the brain cortex. Study has been repeated, with same findings.


We find the same results in studies of children who grow up in impoverished environments (in institutions with little physical contact, a few toys). Being handled helps the brain develop!

Massaging preemie babies helps them to develop faster and go home sooner.

Important to brain development
Exposure to enriched environments increases neural connections in brain

Parents matter!
Especially at extremes

Parents tend to influence education, discipline, interaction with authority figures

But… shared environmental influences account for less than 10% of differences
Other factors may be at
peer influence
Peers tend to influence cooperation, style of interaction with others of similar ages, gaining popularity

Conformity plays a huge role

Parents shape peer influences

A child who dislikes of food, despite the parents urging, will likely try the food if other children around him/her are also eating it.

A child who hears English spoken with one accident at home, and another at school, adopt the accent of the peers!

Teenagers who start smoking typically have friends who smoke.

How do parents shape peer influences? NOT BY TELLING YOU THAT YOUR FRIENDS ARE LOSERS… By choosing the neighborhoods to move to, school systems, enrolling their kids in daycare or athletic activities, climates, exposure to other cultures
cultural influences
Culture = behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people

Norms = rules for accepted and expected behavior

Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next

Manifestations of culture?

What is culture?

How do we see it? What are the manifestations of culture? The size of cars, the amount of clothing on the beach, the type of close that are worn, the way people greet one another, the need for personal space, pace of life, child rearing practices

As the human species, we are actually remarkably similar… regardless of culture we share the same lifecycle, speak and since in the same way, experience the same outcomes under conditions of warm and supportive parents, we all have language, relationships, senses, etc.

There are also differences within culture (there’s the United States culture, within this culture there are many different ethnicities… African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians
The early school of psychology that employed the method of introspection was known as:
structuralism
Edward Titchener used the research method known as
introspection.
Researchers today can use technology such as CAT scans and fMRI scans to measure brain activity. Some researchers ask their subjects to describe elements of their experiences (e.g., sensations, images, feelings) while undergoing the scans. This ___________ technique is similar to the methodology of ___________.
introspection; Titchener
Dr. Prima has been hired to assess job satisfaction and worker productivity. Dr. Prima is most likely a(n) ______________ psychologist
clinical
In debating the origins of knowledge, Plato and Aristotle disagreed about the relative importance of
nature and nurture.
Understanding why a fear of darkness may have contributed to the survival of our human ancestors is most relevant to the _____________ perspective.
evolutionary
Structuralists introduced which research method to identify basic elements of the human mind?
introspection
If you were taking psychology prior to 1920, psychology was defined as “the science of __________________.”
mental life
Compared with the structuralists, early behaviorists were much LESS likely to focus on the study of:
thinking.
In the context of debates concerning the origins of knowledge, nature is to nurture as ____________ is to ____________.
Descartes; Locke
A focus on the extent to which behaviors and personality spring from drives and conflicts outside one’s own awareness is most relevant to the ____________ perspective.
psychodynamic
Natalie and Ray are seeing Dr. Becker for marital issues. Neither one of them has any psychopathology, but they are interested in strengthening their relationship. Dr. Becker is most likely a _________________ psychologist.
counseling
Wilhelm Wundt was both a _______________ and _______________:
physiologist; philosopher
Psychology is the scientific study of:
behavior and mental processes.
Inherited traits that increase the likelihood of reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to the generations that follow. This pattern can be explained by the principle of:
natural selection.
The field of psychology is a collection of diverse subfields. Psychologists who conduct ____________ research contribute by expanding the knowledge base of psychology, whereas others who conduct ____________ research explore practical problems.
basic; applied
A focus on how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences is most relevant to the ____________ perspective.
behavior genetics
At the beginning of the school year, groups of college students were asked to predict a variety of their own social behaviors (e.g., calling their parents, voting in an election). The students reported being 84% confident in their self-predictions. However, they correctly predicted their own behavior only 71% of the time. This human tendency is known as:
overconfidence.
Historically, there have been many examples of “crazy sounding” ideas (e.g., out-of-body travel, extraterrestrial meteorites, Bigfoot, and others). The scientific approach for exploring these ideas is to:
subject them to scrutiny.
Jane and Sarah were watching the evening news when viewers were asked to call in about the city’s proposal to raise taxes. Later in the broadcast, the results were posted. Both Jane and Sarah were skeptical of the 68% of the viewers who supported the tax increase. They wondered who the people that called in were. Jane and Sarah are demonstrating:
critical thinking.
The “decision” as to whether a neuron fires or not can be described as most similar to:
the majority rules.
Milton has been having considerable trouble with his short-term memory. His family has noticed a number of mistakes Milton has been making (e.g., leaving doors unlocked, getting lost in the neighborhood, forgetting family member’s names). It appears that the _____________ producing neurons are deteriorating.
Ach
The work groups that neurons cluster into are known as:
neural networks.
In terms of your heartbeat, digestion, and glandular functioning, your body is a fairly well-oiled machine that works even when you are asleep. This is possible due to your:
autonomic nervous system.
After being startled awake in the middle of the night, it turns out the noise the woman heard was the closet rod breaking from the weight of her winter coats. Knowing that, she begins to calm down and her heart stops racing. Clearly her _____________ has been activated.
parasympathetic nervous system
People who engage in extreme sports often do this to feel the rush of epinephrine and norepinephrine. This rush comes from the:
adrenal glands
This endocrine gland secretes many different hormones, some of which affect other glands.
the pituitary gland
“Neurotransmitter” is to “synaptic gap” as “hormone” is to:
bloodstream
Depressed mood states are linked to ________ levels of serotonin and ________ levels of norepinephrine.
low; low
Those who suffer from schizophrenia have, amongst other things, an excess of dopamine. Therefore, medications used to treat this disorder are dopamine:
antagonists.
Which of the following does the autonomic nervous system most directly control?
bladder contractions
The work groups that neurons cluster into are known as:
neural networks.
If you were trying to describe the function of the somatic nervous system to a middle-school child, which of the following analogies might you use?
It functions like a remote control that moves a robotic arm.
The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine __________ blood pressure and __________ blood sugar levels.
raises; raises
J.B. was diagnosed with an imbalance in the regulation of calcium in his blood. This imbalance was due to abnormal:
parathyroids