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42 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

anything that has mass and takes up space

matter

a simple substance that cannot be divided into simpler substances

element

the smallest piece of an element that has all the properties of the element

atom

the center of an atom

nucleus

positively charged particles found in an atom's nucleus

proton

neutral particles found in an atom's nucleus

neutrons

negatively charged particles that make up atoms

electrons

"orbits" around the nucleus in which electrons are found

energy levels

the electrons found in the outermost energy level

valence electrons

an atom that is electrically charged due to the gain or loss of electrons

ion

a substance that is made of two or more kinds of atoms

compound

a neutral particle made of two or more atoms that share electrons

molecule

which element has the symbol Na?

sodium

which element has the symbol K?

potassium

what is the chemical symbol for phosphorus?

P

the number of protons

atomic number

how many protons does a calcium atom have?

20

how many protons does an oxygen atom have?

8

how many electrons does a potassium atom have?

19

how many electrons does a chlorine atom have?

17

how many neutrons does a lithium atom have?

4

how many neutrons does a nitrogen atom have?

7

type of bond that results from the sharing of electrons between atoms

covalent

type of bond that results from the transfer of electrons from one atom to another

ionic bond

atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

isotopes

on which side of the periodic table are metals located?

left

what name is given to the elements in group 18

noble gases

what name is given to the elements in group 1

alkali metals

where are the halogens located on the periodic table

group 17

where are the transition elements located on the periodic table

groups 3-12

what name is given to the elements that border the zigzag line on the periodic table

metalloids

where are the alkaline earth metals located on the periodic table?

group 2

what does the octet rule state?

atoms that have 8 valence electrons are stable

how many valence electrons does a sodium atom have?

1

how many valence electrons does a chlorine atom have?

7

how many valence electrons does an aluminum atom have?

3

what is the charge of a sodium ion?

+1

what is the charge of a chlorine ion?

-1

what is the charge of an oxygen ion?

-2

which elements are chemically inactive?

noble gases

which metals are the most active metals?

alkali metals

which nonmetals are the most active?

halogens