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7 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Climate Proxy Studies

For studies before 1850:

-we used tree rings, stumps, dating of wood (tree fragments), corals, etc.

Purpose/Method in Climate Models

-Simulate the dynamics of the global climate system based on physics of fluid dynamics

- Use a gridded volume 100-200 km/side

(Specific) Method of Climate Models

-Use equations of fluid mechanics (3D vector calculus/diff. equations) to calculate exchange parameters, between gridded cells.

-Use historical records for calibration

Weather Forecasting Models

- Smaller grids (15-40 KM)

-Input Data: current weather observations

- Output: 84 hours (NAM)- 360 hours (GFS)

- Typically run 4 times/days

IPCC 5 (Chapter 9)

- looooonnggg discussion of model performance

- Average change in temp from 1850-2005: 0.76 C; Average error: 25%

- Change in temp for CO2 doubling: 1.8-4.5 C; Greatest error is cloud formation (expected).

Problems With Models

- Models cannot forecast PDO phase change (or any other phase change)

- Problem: policy decisions w/incomplete and at times contradictory information

Solutions (for climate change)

- Infrastructure response/properties: Green spaces, white roofs (to retigate UHI effect), improved electricity grid

-dams/dikes/flood control

- Reduce CO2 emissions: better public transport, transition from coal to gas to H2

- Create awareness/shame