Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/7

Click to flip

7 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Climate Proxy Studies

For studies before 1850:


-we used tree rings, stumps, dating of wood (tree fragments), corals, etc.

Purpose/Method in Climate Models

-Simulate the dynamics of the global climate system based on physics of fluid dynamics


- Use a gridded volume 100-200 km/side

(Specific) Method of Climate Models

-Use equations of fluid mechanics (3D vector calculus/diff. equations) to calculate exchange parameters, between gridded cells.


-Use historical records for calibration

Weather Forecasting Models

- Smaller grids (15-40 KM)


-Input Data: current weather observations


- Output: 84 hours (NAM)- 360 hours (GFS)


- Typically run 4 times/days



IPCC 5 (Chapter 9)

- looooonnggg discussion of model performance


- Average change in temp from 1850-2005: 0.76 C; Average error: 25%


- Change in temp for CO2 doubling: 1.8-4.5 C; Greatest error is cloud formation (expected).



Problems With Models

- Models cannot forecast PDO phase change (or any other phase change)


- Problem: policy decisions w/incomplete and at times contradictory information

Solutions (for climate change)

- Infrastructure response/properties: Green spaces, white roofs (to retigate UHI effect), improved electricity grid


-dams/dikes/flood control


- Reduce CO2 emissions: better public transport, transition from coal to gas to H2


- Create awareness/shame