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9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Conjunction A and B


Disjunction A or B


Negation Not A


Conditional If A then B

If it is raining then I am cold


I am not cold


---------------------------------------


It is not raining




If P then Q


not Q


----------------


Not P

DENYING A DISJUNCT




P or Q


Not P


--------


Q

FALLACY AFFIRMING THE DISJUNCT




P or Q P or Q


P Q


------- --------


Not Q Not P

P = Antecedent Q = Consequent




AFFIRMING THE ANTECEDENT




If P then Q


P


----------------


Q

P = Antecedent Q = Consequent

DENYING THE CONSEQUENT



If P then Q Not Q


----------------


Not P

FALLACY AFFIRMING THE CONSEQUENT




IF P then Q


Q


-------------


P

FALLACY OF DENYING THE ANTECEDENT




IF P then Q


Not P


----------------


Not Q

HYPOTHETICAL SYLLOGISM




IF P then Q


IF Q then R


--------------


If P then R

7 STEPS OF CRITICAL REASONING


1. CLARIFY THE MEANING


2. IDENTIFY THE CONCLUSION


3. DISPLAY THE STRUCTURE


4. LOCATE ASSUMPTIONS (missing premises)


5. CRITICISE THE PREMISE & INFERENCE


6. CONSIDER OTHER ARGUMENTS - N/A


7. EVALUATE THE ARGUEMENT OVERALL



InfiniteRegress of Reasons

Before we can claim to know something we must know something,and before we can claim to know, we must know something else and so on. Seriousproblem; it means to know something, we first have to know an infinite numberof other things which is physically impossible, and also because we haven’texplained very much about what we actually do know. What is it to knowsomething?

HumanPerception can be explained with internal model of reality, Burke’svideo the real thing, Illusions and hallucinations and Appearance and Reality(1946)
Rationalism

By reason alone a knowledge exists. without piori & independent of any experience.


I think therefore I am – Descartes


Failure of rationalism is it is unable to provide epistemological foundations – propositions are either indubitable but informative or informative but dubious.

Empiricism

Based on experience.


Human beings are tubular rasa = blank slate.


No propositional knowledge until sensory experience is provided. Failure of empirical foundations are illusions and hallucinations.

Scepticism is the position we can know nothing useful. Limited doubting possibility of genuine truth in a particular field. Global rejects possibility of truth in every field of knowledge no such thing as knowledge truth or reason. For scepticism – Argument for dreaming & brain in a vat
Against scepticism

Moore 1959 2 hands theory.


To accept JTB – then open to challenge of global scepticism.

Solipsism – Only I exist (and my experiences)
Fallibilism

if knowledge is JTB Sceptical Consequence Stringent requirements means no knowledge as JTB, therefore no useful knowledge.


No foundation for knowledge


therefore must reject JTB.