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47 Cards in this Set

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consumer behavior

activities and decision processes directly involved in obtaining, consuming, and disposing of products and services

need state

psychological state arising when one's desired state of affairs differs from one's actual state of affairs

consumer decision making process

need recognition



information search and alternative evaluation



purchase



post-purchase use and evaluation

functional benefits

benefits that come from a product's objective performance characteristics

emotional benefits

benefits not typically found in a product's tangible features or objective characteristics

internal search

search for product information that draws on personal experience and prior knowledge

consideration set

subset of brands form a product category that becomes the focal point of a consumer's evaluation

external search

gathering product information by visiting retail stores to examine alternatives, seeking input from friends and relatives, or perusing professional product evaluations

evaluative criteria

product attributes or performance characteristics on which consumers base their product evaluations

customer satisfaction

good feelings that come from a favorable post-purchase experience

cognitive dissonance

anxiety or regret that lingers after a difficult decision

involvement

degree of perceived relevance and personal importance accompanying the choice of a product or service in a particular context

extended problem solving

decision making mode in which inexperienced but highly involved consumers go through a deliberate decision making process

limited problem solving

decision making mode in which relatively inexperienced and uninvolved consumers are not systemic about decisions

habit

decision making mode in which consumers buy a single brand repeatedly as a solution to a simple consumption problem

variety seeking

decision making mode in which consumers switch their selection among various brands in a category in a random pattern

Brand loyalty

decision making mode in which consumers repeatedly choose to buy the same brand of a product to fulfill a specific need

attitude

overall evaluation f any object, person, or issue



varies along a continuum, such as favorable to unfavorable or positive to negative

Brand attitudes

summary evaluations that reflect preferences for various products or brands

salient beliefs

the few beliefs that are the critical determinants of an attitude

how beliefs shape attitudes

multi attribute attitude models (MAAMs)

framework and set of procedures for collecting information from consumers to assess their salient beliefs and attitudes about competiting brands

4 MAAMs components

evaluative criteria: attributes or performance characteristics



importance of weights: priority that a particular evaluative criteria receives



consideration set: the group of brands represents the focal point of the consumer's consideration



beliefs: the consumer's knowledge and feelings about various brands

using MAAMs analysis

cognitive consistency

maintenance or a system of beliefs and attitudes over time

advertising clutter

volume or similar ads for products or services that presents an obstacle to brand promotion

stages before a brand message can have its intended effect

consumer must:



1) pay attention to the messae



2) comprehend the message



3) accept the message as intended



4) retain the message until it is needed for a purchase decision

selective attention

processing of only a few messages among many encountered

cognitive response

thoughts that occur at the exact moment when beliefs and attitudes are being challenged by a message

elaboration likelihood model (ELM)

Social psychological model of the response to a persuasive communication expressing the response in terms of motivation and ability

peripheral cues

features of an advertisement other than the actual arguments about the brand's performance

ELM 2 routes to attitude change

meaning

what a brand message intends or conveys

culture

a group's characteristic ways of behaving

types of cultural expression

values



rituals



stratification

rituals

repeated behaviors that affirm, express, and maintain cultural values

stratification (social class)

individuals' relative standing in a social system as produced by systematic inequalities

taste

a generalized set or orientation to consumer preferences

3 variables in social class

income



occupation



education

cultural capital

the value that cultures place on certain consumption practices

intergenerational affect

choose of products based on what was set in the consumer's childhood household

life stage

circumstance that changes a family's consumption patterns

celebrity

sociological category of famous individuals who shape identify for others

community

group of people loosely joined by a common characteristic or interest

Brand community

group of consumers who feel a commonality and shared purpose grounded in or attached to consumer good or service

advertising and social rift (revolution)

consumers sometimes use their consumption choices to stake out a revolution (1960s)

movement of meaning