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22 Cards in this Set

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Bacillus

Rod-shaped bacteria

Cocci

Round-shaped bacteria

Strepto-

Chain

Diplo-

2

Staphylo-

Cluster

Prokaryotic Cell

One circular chromosome, no nuclear membrane.


No histones-naked DNA


Few organelles


Peptidoglycan cell walls


Binary fission

Flagella

Outside of cell wall


Stick out and provide locomotion by chemotaxis

Axial Filament

Anchored at one end of a cell


Rotation causes cell to move

Fimbriae

Fine, protein, hairlike bristles.


Sticks to other cells and surfaces.

Pili

Function in partial DNA transfer called conjugation

Types of Glycocalyx

Slime layer and Capsule

Glycocalyx

Protect cells from dehydration and nutrient loss


Inhibit killing by white blood cells by phagocytosis.

Cell Wall

Holds shape, prevents bursting, attaches outer structures and contains peptidoglycan.

Gram-Positive Cell Walls

Thick peptidoglycan


Teichoic acids


May have small periplasmic space


Stains easily-chemical penetrate


No LPS or porins

Gram-Negative Cell Walls

Thin peptidoglycan


No teichoic acids


Outer membrane


Extensive periplasmic space


Staining and penetration poor


LPS and porins


Toxic

Cytoplasm

Mix of sugars, amino acids, salts


70-80% water

Ribosomes

Make protein

Bacterial Ribosome

Made of rRNA and protein


Large subunit & small subunit


Sit of protein synthesis



Cytoskeleton

Near cell wall


Shape, support, and movement

Endospores

Most durable cell produced in nature


Survive harsh conditions, go dormant and germinate in good conditions.

Cyanobacteria

Likely ancestors of chloroplasts


Blue-green: first oxygen makers



Gliding and Fruiting bacteria

Glide over moist surfaces


Group digestion more efficient


Fruiting to survive stress