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60 Cards in this Set

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Control is focused on the project elements of cost, scope, and __________.

time

When performing control, project managers need to be equally attentive to __________ and conservation.

regulation

The __________ of human resources requires controlling and maintaining the growth and development of people.

stewardship

In a __________ control system using a negative feedback loop, the speed or force with which the control operates is, in general, proportional to the size of the deviation from standard.

cybernetic

The most important rule for any subordinate is the Prime Law of Life applied to project management: never let the __________ be surprised.

boss

_______ are efforts to improve the chances for future projects to meet their goals by reviewing projects.

Postcontrols

When developing a control system, it is important that the system be __________.

well balanced

With few exceptions, the control of projects is always exercised through _______.

people

Physical asset control requires control of the __________ of physical assets and is concerned with asset maintenance, whether preventative or corrective.

use

In order to achieve total control over a system, a controller must be able to take a __________ for every action that the system can take.

counteraction

Most control systems used in project management today fall into the __________ category of control system.

go/no-go control

A cybernetic control system that acts to reduce deviations from standard is called a(n) __________.

negative feedback loop

Physical asset control is concerned with asset maintenance, whether preventative or __________.

corrective

Go/no-go controls operate continuously.

False

Because project milestones do not occur at periodic intervals, go/no-go controls should be linked the corporate budgeting process.

False

In order to gain user acceptance, the control system should appear to be sensible.

True

In addition to being easy to maintain, a good control system will signal the overall controller if it goes out of order.

True

The critical ratio control chart uses a ratio made up of two parts -- the ratio of actual progress to scheduled progress, and the ratio of budgeted cost to actual cost.

True

According to research completed by Hussain and Wearne (2005), the three most important issues facing project management were organization, resource, and time issues.

True

When major changes are made to projects, it is rare that a risk identification and analysis study should be performed.

False

Control is focused on ________ elements of a project.

Performance, cost, and time

When performing control, project managers need to be attentive to ________.

Regulation and conservation equally

Physical asset control requires control of the ________ and is concerned with asset maintenance, whether preventative or corrective.

The use of physical assets

The stewardship of human resources requires ________ the growth and development of people.

Controlling and maintaining

Identify the item that is not one of the three types of control processes described by the authors.

Robotic control

The key feature of cybernetic control systems is ________.

Automatic operation

In a cybernetic control system using a negative feedback loop, the speed or force with which the control operates is, in general, ________ to the size of the deviation from standard.

Proportional

The following statement is a major disadvantage of third-order cybernetic control systems.

Their human elements lack predictability and reliability

In essence, the law of ________ dictates that a controller must be able to take a counteraction for every action the system can take in order to achieve total control over the system.

Requisite variety

Most control systems used in project management today fall into this category of control system.

Go/no-go control

Go/no-go controls operate ________.

Only when and if the controller uses them

Because project milestones do not occur at periodic intervals, go/no-go controls should be linked to ________; not simply to the calendar.

The actual plans and to the occurrence of real events

In order to gain user acceptance, the control system should appear to be ________.

Sensible

In addition to being easy to maintain, a good control system will ________ if it goes out of order.

Signal the overall controller

The critical ratio control chart uses a ratio made up of two parts -- the ratio of actual progress to scheduled progress, and the ________.

Ratio of budgeted cost to actual cost

________ controls work to conserve the organization’s assets by insisting that certain conditions be met before capital can be expended. Those same conditions usually regulate the use of capital to achieve the organization’s goal of a high return on investments.

capital investment

With respect to financial controls, courts will require the practice of ________ regarding financial controls, practices, and record-keeping.

due diligence

The most common type of control system is the ________, or steering, control.

cybernetic

The cybernetic control system that acts to reduce deviations from standard is called a ________.

negative feedback loop

A ________ device serves as an example of a simple, first-order cybernetic control system.

goal-seeking

The addition of a clock to the thermostat to allow it to maintain different standards during day and night makes the thermostat a ________ cybernetic controller.

second-order

The ________ is a type of cybernetic control system that can change its goals without specific preprogramming.

third-order control system

A third-order cybernetic control system is said to have ________ consciousness and, thus, must contain humans.

reflective

The preprogramming in second-order cybernetic control systems enables them to ________ and to react in specific ways.

recognize patterns

The ________ controls take the form of testing to see if some specific precondition has been met.

go/no-go

The Prime Law of Life on any project is ________.

Never let the boss be surprised!

Post project reviews are an example of ________.

postcontrols

________ are directed towards improving chances for future projects to meet their goals.

postcontrols

Because the critical ratio is the product of the two separate ratios for ________, this way of combining the two underlying ratios weights them equally. It allows a bad ratio for one part to be offset by an equally good ratio in the other.

CPI and SPI

Human response to steering controls tends to be positive because they are usually viewed as ________.

helpful rather than a source of unwelcome pressure

Many people perceive ________ to be equivalent to report cards.

postcontrols

Investment in control systems is subject to ________, so it is important to balance the need for control with the cost of control.

sharply diminishing returns

A balanced control system is directed toward ________ rather than toward punishment.

correction of error

Configuration management activities are often part of an organization’s ________ process.

change control

An ________ is a monitoring system that forewarns the project manager if trouble arises.

early warning system

Identify some of the factors that can cause a project to require control of performance.

Potential factors suggesting a need for control of performance include: the recognition of an unexpected technical problem, insufficient resources are available when needed, insurmountable technical difficulties are present, quality or reliability problems occur, clients require changes in system specifications, interfunctional complications arise, or technological breakthroughs affect the project.

Identify some of the factors that can cause a project to require control of cost.

Potential factors suggesting a need for control of cost include: technical difficulties require more resources, the scope of work increases, initial bids or estimates were too low, reporting was poor or untimely, budgeting was inadequate, corrective control was not exercised in time, or input price changes occurred.

Identify some of the factors that can cause a project to require control of time.

Potential factors suggesting a need for control of time include: technical difficulties took longer than planned to solve, initial time estimates were optimistic, task sequencing was incorrect, required inputs of material, personnel, or equipment were unavailable when needed, necessary preceding task were incomplete, customer-generated change orders required rework, or government regulations were altered.

Describe the two fundamental objectives of control.

The two fundamental objectives of control are: the regulation of results through the alteration of activities, and the stewardship of organizational assets.

Describe the information requirements of a cybernetic controller.

First, the project manager must define the precise characteristics of an output to be controlled. Second, standards must be set for each characteristic. Third, sensors must be acquired that will measure those characteristics at the desired level of precision. Fourth, these measurements must be transformed into a signal that can be compared to a standard signal. Fifth, the difference between the two is sent to the decision maker, which detects it. If it is sufficiently large, the decision maker transmits a signal to the effector that causes the operating system to react in a way that will counteract the deviation from standard. If the effector can take multiple actions, criteria must be built in to instruct the effector on which actions to take.