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74 Cards in this Set

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Mental Retardation
- Indicated by IQ of 70 or below.
- Mild = 55-70
- Moderate = 40-55
- Severe = 25-40
- Profound = IQ<25
Learning Disorders
- Indicated by school achievement or standardized deviations below the mean for the appropriate age and IQ.
Developmental Disorders
- Autism, for example; indicated by severe problems with social skills, communications, and interests
Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavior disorders
- attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is indicated by problems with attention, behavior, and impulsivity
- Opposition Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder are indicated by patterns of behavior that violate rules, norms, or the rights of others
Tic Disorders
- Tourette's syndrome, for example, is indicated by motor and vocal tics.
Elimination Disorders
- Nocturnal enuresis, for example, is bed-wetting
Delerium
- Indicated by disturbed consiousness (awareness, attention, focus) and cognition (memory, disorientation)
Dementia
- Cognitive problems (with memory, spatial tasks or language) that result from a medical condition
- may be the result of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntinton's disease (genetically inherited progressive degeneration of thought, emotion, and movement) or Pick's disease (disease of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain characterized by changes in personality)
Medical Disorders Due to a General Medical Condition
- one of the categories of the DSM-IV
- disorders in this category are the direct physiological result of a medical problem, such as depression resuling from hypothyroidism
Dependence
- a substance-related disorder
- Indicated by some combination of the following: continued use despite substance-related problems; need for increased amount of substance; a desire but inability to stop use; withdrawal; lessening of outside interests; lots of time spent getting, using, or recovering from the substance.
Abuse
- a substance-related disorder
- recurrent use despite substance-related problems or danger
Schizophrenia
- formerly known as DEMENTIA PRAECOX, but renamed by EUGENE BLEULER
- means "split mind," indicating a mind that has split from reality.
Positive schizophrenic symptoms
- include delusions (erroneous or distorted thinking); perceptual hallucinations; nonsensical or disorganized speech (perhaps use of made-up words called neologisms); and disorganized behavior (inappropriate dress, agitation, shouting)
Negative schizophrenic symptoms
- include FLAT AFFECT (absence of appropriate emotion) or restrictions in thought, speech, or behavior
Onset of schizophrenia
- occurs generally between late adolescence and the mid-30s
- PROCESS SCHIZOPHRENIA develops gradually, whereas REACTIVE SCHIZOPHRENIA develops suddenly in response to a particular event
- process has a lower rate of recovery than reactive
- generally, an individual with a history of good social and interpersonal skills is more likely to recover from schizophrenia than an antisocial individual
Diasthesis-stress theory
- schizophrenia results from a physiological predisposition (abnormal brain chemistry) paired with an external stressor
- the biochemical factor most associated with schizophrenia is EXCESSIVE DOPAMINE in the brain
Five types of schizophrenia
1) Paranoid
2) Disorganized
3) Catatonic
4) Undifferentiated
5) Residual
Paranoid schizophrenia
- indicated by preoccupation with delusions or auditory hallucinations
Disorganized schizophrenia
- also known as HEBEPHRENIC; indicated by disorganized speech and behavior, and flat effect
Catatonic schizophrenia
indicated by: psychomotor disturbance, such as CATALEPSY (motor immobility or waxy figure); excessive motor activity; prominent posturing (gestures, mannerism,s or grimacing); ECHOLALIA (parroting); or ECHOPRAXIA (imitating the gestures of others)
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
- a grab bag of schizophrenic symptoms not fitting into a particular type
Residual
- watered-down schizophrenia with few positive symptoms, if any
Schizoaffective disorder
- schizophrenic symptoms accompanying a depressive episode
Delusional disorder
- persistent delusions of various types:
- EROTOMANIC (that another person is in love with the individual)
- GRANDIOSE (that one has special talent or status)
- Jealous; Persecutory; Somatic (bodily, such as believing a part of the body is ugly or misshapen)
Shared psychotic disorder
- also known as "FOLIE A DEUX" - when two people have shared delusions
Major depressive disorder
- A depressive episode evidence by depressed mood, loss of usual interests, changes in weight or sleep, low energy, feeligns of worthlessness, or thoughts of death; the symptoms are present nearly every day FOR AT LEAST TWO WEEKS
Dysthymic disorder
- symptoms of major depressive disorder are present more days not not for over two years
- is insufficient in severity to justify diagnosis of major depressive disorder
Bipolar disorder
- also known as MANIC-DEPRESSION
- indicated by depressive symptoms that alternate with mani symptoms (inflated self-esteem, decreased sleep, talkativeness, flight of ideas, intense goal-directed activity, excessive pleasure-seeking)
Panic attack
- lasts for a discrete period of time, often under 10 minutes
- an individual has overwhelming feelings of danger or of the need to escape
- often expressed as an intense fear of spontaneously dying or "going crazy" and is generally accompanied by physical manifestations such as sweating, trembling, pounding heart, and more
Panic disorder
- recurrent panic attacks and persistent wrry about another attack
- this disorder is often accompanied by a mitral valve heart problem
Agoraphobia
- fear of a situation in which panic symptoms might arise and escape would be difficulty
- this usually means fear and avoidance of being outside the home or in crowds
Phobia
- recognized, unreasonable, intense anxiety symptoms and avoidance anchored to a stimulus
- SPECIFIC PHOBIA is in reponse to a stimulus, such as flying, heights, needles or driving
- SOCIAL PHOBIA pertains to anxiety around social or performance situations
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
- characterized by OBSESSIONS (persistent thoughts) or COMPULSIONS (repetitive behaviors or mental acts) that are time consuming, distressing, and disruptive
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
- exposure to trauma that results in decreased ability to function and recurrent thoughts and anxiety about the trauma
- this disorder is often linke to war veterans or victims of violence
Conversion disorder
- a somatoform disorder
- psychological problems are converted to bodily symptoms
- the symptoms generally relate to voluntary movement and may be manifested as "paralysis" in part of the body. This disorder was formerly known as "hysteria," from Freud's work.
Hypochondriasis
- characterized by excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illness
Somatization Disorder
- marked by a history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin.
Factitious Disorder
- Creating physical complaints through fabrication or self-infliction (ingesting toxins, for example) in order to assume the sick role
Dissociative Disorders
- all involve the disruption of the memory or identity
- formerly known as PSYCHOGENIC DISORDERS
1) Amnesia
2) Fuge
3) Identity Disorder
Amnesia
- inability to recall information relating to trauma
- RETROGRADE AMNESIA - the forgetting of events that occurred before the trauma
- ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA - the forgetting of events that occurred after the trauma
Fugue
- suddenly fleeing to a new location, forgetting true identity, and/or establishing a new identity
Identity disorder
- DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER is the new name for multiple personality disorder, or the assumption of two or more identities that control behavior in different situations
Sexual and Gendera Identity Disorders
- these disorders range from fetishes to arousal problems to gender discomfort
- anything sexual is under this category
Anorexia Nervosa
- refusing to eat enough to maintain a healthy body weight
- showing excessive concern about becoming obese
Bulimia Nervosa
- binge eating accompanied by harmful ways to prevent weight gain (inducted vomiting or laxative use)
Dyssomnias
- relate to sleep abnormalities
Parasomnias
- abnormal behaviors during sleep
Insomnia
- difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
Hypersomnia
- excessive sleepiness
Narcolepsy
- falling asleep uncontrollably during routine daily activity
Nightmare
- frequent disruption of sleep because of nightmares
Sleep terror
- frequent disruption of sleep because of screaming or crying
Kleptomania
- irresistible impulse to steal
Pyromania
- irresistible impulse to set fires
Pathological gambling
- irresistible impulse to gamble
Trichotillomania
- irresistible impulse to pull out one's own body hair
Adjustment Disorders
- the presence of a real stressor (a move, a divorce, city life) that results in decreased functioning
Personality disorders
- are characterized by rigid, pervasive, culturally abnormal personality structures
1) Paranoid (distrust, suspicion); 2) Schizoid (detachment, small range of emotions); 3) Schizotypal (eccentricity, distorted reality), 4) Antisocial (disregard for the rights of others, absense of guilt) 5) Borderline (instability in relationships and emotions, impulsivitiy) 6) Histrionic (excess emotion, attention-seeking) 7) Narcissistic (need for admiration, idea of superiority); 8) Avoidant (social inhibitions, hypersensitivity, perceptions of inadequacy) 9) Dependent (need to be taken care of, clinging) 10) Obsessive-compulsive (excessive orderliness and control, perfectionism)
Dopamine
- is a major player in the physiology of various disorders
- too much dopamine activity is believed to cause schizophrenia
- the use of amphetamines increases dopamine activity and, thus, produces schizophrenic-like paranoid symptoms
- NEUROLEPTIC drugs (such as the antipsychotic chlorpromazine) reduce dopamine activity by blocking dopamine receptors; thereby reducing schizophrenic symptoms.
- Parkinson's is caused by deficient dopamine activity. Someone with Parkinson's needs to boost dopamine activity through use of a drug such as levodopa. Neuroleptics can cause Parkinson's because they decrease dopamine activity.
Tardive dyskinesia
- can also result from the long-term use of neuroleptics or psychotropics
- this disorder is characterized by involuntary, repetitive movements of the tongue, jaw, or extremities
Down syndrome
- the most common cause of mental retardation
Cretinism
- a different form of mental retardation that is caused by iodine deficiency
Korsakoff's syndrome
- results from years of heavy drinking
- caused by vitamin B deficiency
- is the loss of memory and orientation
- sufferers often make up events to fill in the gaps (confabulations)
Wernicke's syndrome
- caused by thiamine deficiency, is characterized by memory problems and eye dysfunctions
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
- an infant disease related to excess amino acids
- it is an inborn error of metabolism
Tay-Sachs disease
- a genetic deficiency of hexosaminidase A
- sufferers may have symptoms that resemble psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia or dementia
Klinefelter's syndrome
- a male with one Y and two X chromosomes
Rates of depression
- higher in developed countries
- women are two times more likely to be diagnosed with unipolar depression than men
Reactive depression
- depression resulting from particular events
- similar to Martin Seligman's idea of LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
Thomas Szasz
- viewed the schizophrenic world as simply misunderstood or artistic
- he felt that schizophrenics should not be treated
Depressive realism
- refers to the finding that depressed people tend to be more realistic about life than the nondepressed
Fromm and Reichman
- coined the term SCHIZOPHRENOGENIC MOTHER, which refers to a type of motehr who supposedly causes children to become schizophrenic
David Rosenham
- studied the effect of diagnostic lables on the perception of behavior
- in an experiment, normal pseudopatients were admitted to hospitals feigning disorders. Once inside, the individuals acted normally, but their behaviors were construed as fitting the diagnosis anyway.
Life event stress
- most frequently results from large, sudden changes or pbolems