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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Any variable used to forecast a criterion
Psychometric Qualities of Predictors
properties of actual measurement devices

> Reliability
> Validity
the consistency, stability, or equivalence of a measure
Four (4) Types of Predictor Reliability
(1) Test-retest
(2) Equivalent-form
(3) Internal consistency
> Split half
(4) Inter-rater
Test-Retest Reliability
a type of reliability that reveals the stability of test scores upon repeated applications of the test

Correlation: coefficient of stability

MAJOR PROBLEM: assumption of stability
Equivalent-Form Reliability
a type of reliability that reveals the equivalence of test scores between two versions of the test

Correlation: coefficient of equivalence

** Removes issues of reactivity and stability
>>> May not be possible to generate multiple forms
Internal Consistency Reliability
a type of reliability that reveals the homogeneity of the items in a test

(1) Split-half
>>> Not useful when time limit is imposed and individuals may not finish
(2) Statistical coefficients: Cronbach's alpha or KR20 (Kuder-Richardson 20) - the response of each item is correlated with the response to every other item
>>> The more items, the higher the coefficient
Inter-Rater Reliability
a type of reliability that reveals the degree of agreement among the assessments of two or more raters
standard for evaluating tests that refers to the accuracy of drawing inferences from test scores
Unifying Theory of Validity
all these types of validity must be obtained before the measure can be considered valid
(1) Construct
(2) Criterion-related
(3) Content
Construct Validity
degree to which a test is an accurate & faithful measure of the construct it purports to measure

(1) Convergent: the degree to which the measure is related to other similar measures and concepts

(2) Divergent: the degree to which the measure is unrelated to dissimilar measure and concepts
Criterion-Related Validity
degree to which a test forecasts or is statically related to a criterion

(1) Concurrent- predictor scores are correlated with current performance
(2) Predictive- predictor scores are correlated with future performance
Validity Coefficient
the correlation between predictor scores and criterion data

(r)^2 = how much variance in the criterion can be accounted for by using the predictor
EX: correlation coefficient of .4, 16% (r^2) of variance can be accounted for by knowing predictor
Content Validity
to which a measure representatively assesses the relevant domains of interest
Face Validity
appearance that items in a test are appropriate for the intended use of the test by the individuals who take the test
Galton & Cattell
Galton: developed first large-scale body of information on individual differences
Cattell: introduced term mental test, intelligence test based on sensory discrimination and reaction time
developed intelligence test
developed concept of IQ (intelligence quotient)
Three (3) Types of Tests
(1) Speed vs. power
(2) Individual vs. group
(3) Paper-and-pencil vs. performance
Ethical Standards in Testing
(1) APA Code of Professional Ethics
(2) Test user qualifications
(3) Invasion of privacy
(4) Confidentiality
(5) Retention of records
Spearman’s 2-Factor Theory
Specific knowledge and general knowledge
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
General, practical, and creative intelligence
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Interpersonal, kinesthetic, etc.
"g”: General Mental Ability
**Single best predictor of job performance

Validity coefficient: .40-.60
Four (4) Approaches to Measuring Personality
(1) Empirically-driven: statistics determines items
(2) Theory-driven: theory determines items
(3) Projective tests: unconscious facets of personality
(4) Conditional reasoning tests: reasoning = personality
Big 5 Personality Theory
(1) Neuroticism
(2) Extraversion
(3) Openness to experience
(4) Agreeableness
(5) Conscientiousness
Types of Test Content
(1) Mechanical aptitude tests
(2) Integrity: overt or personality-based
(3) Physical abilities testing
(4) Situational judgment tests
Situation-based vs. experience-based
Structured vs. unstructured

Highest validity
Structured & situation-based
Four (4) Characteristics of Assessment Centers
(1) Managers; high-pay positions
(2) Assessed in groups
(3) Assessor teams as raters
(4) Variety of exercises over single or multiple days
Situational Exercises at Assessment Centers
Situational Exercises
(1) One-on-one interviews: Involve interactions with clients or subordinates
(2) In-basket: Assessee prioritizes/responds to series of memos & reports
(3) Leaderless group
Letters of Recommendation
** Very common
>>> Least valid
>>> Restriction of Range
>>> Negative information
** Length vs. content
Two (2) Types of Drug Testing
(1) Screening-ID presence of a chemical
(2) Confirmation-ID particular chemical
Five (5) Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence
(1) Knowing one’s emotions
(2) Managing one’s emotions
(3) Motivating oneself

(4) Recognizing emotions in others
(5) Handling relationships
Four (4) Ways of Evaluating Predictors
(1) Validity
(2) Fairness & bias
(3) Applicability
(4) Cost