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262 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an assessment of the difficulty an audience should have reading and comprehending a passage
readability study
employed to assess how readily written messages are understood
readability study
most of these are based on the number of syllables in the words and the length of the sentences used
readability studies
help determine the clarity of a written message and its appropriateness to the educational level of an audience
readability studies
the basic premise of these is that written copy will be ineffective if it is too difficult to read
readability studies
_____ may be useful in public relations efforts to tailor writing styles toward target publications
readability studies/tests
True or false? Simple writing is always the best.
a research process to determine what the image of an organization is both internally and externally
public relations audit
essentially a broad-scale study that examines the internal and external public relations of an organization
public relations audit
involves a comprehensive study of the public relations positions of an organization: how it stands in the opinion of its various publics
public relations audit
they provide input data for planning future public relations programs and help evaluate the effectiveness of previous efforts
public relations audit
What are the four steps of a PR audit?
(1.) finding out what "we" think, (2.) finding out what "they" think,
(3.) evaluating the disparity between the two, (4.) recommending
interview with key management at the top and middle strata of an organization to determine company strengths and weaknesses, relevant publics, and issues and topics to be explored
finding out what "we" think
researching key publics to determine how closely their views match those of company management
finding out what "they" think
a public relations balance sheet of assets, liabilities, strengths, weaknesses, and so on is prepared based on an analysis of the differences found between steps 1 and 2
evaluating the disparity between the two
a comprehensive public relations program is planned to fill in the gap between steps 1 and 2 to correct the deficits of the balance sheet prepared in step 3
people who are not aware of an existing problem
latent public
a group faces an indeterminate situation but does not recognize it as a problem
latent public
people who are getting the message who probably do not recognize that there is a problem that exists
latent public
a group of people who share a common problem or goal and recognize their common interest
John Dewey, in his 1927 book The Public and Its Problems, defines a public as a group of people who: (3 things)
(1.) FACE a similar indeterminate situation, (2.) RECOGNIZE what is indeterminate in that situation, (3.) ORGANIZE to do something about the problem
James Grunig proposed and tested what three categories for the identification of publics based on Dewey's definition?
(1.) latent publics, (2.) aware publics, (3.) active publics
What are the seven aspects practitioners define publics by?
(1.) age/gender/ethnicity, (2.) marital-family status, (3.) education/income level, (4.) work location/residence, (5.) media use, (6.) political and religious affiliation, (7.) attitude/opinion/behavior
What is the most important aspect practitioners define a public by?
Attitude/opinion/behavior since many times we are trying to alter how someone thinks of something or their behavior.
such categories group together people who are likely to behave in similar ways
makes it possible for public relations practitioners to communicate with each group regarding its needs and concerns rather than attempting to communicate with a mythical "average"
a technique that allows each member of a public an equal chance of being selected
simple random sampling
True or false? If a sample is large enough is selected totally random, it will accurately reflect the characteristics of its public.
Nielsen ratings using from 1,200 to 1,600 in a sample to determine what households across the company are viewing each night is an example of
simple random sampling
the most common example of this is drawing a name from a hat
simple random sampling
a research gathering technique that selects a subset of the larger group with every member of the larger group having an equal chance of being selected
simple random sampling
this type of sampling gives the best statistical chance of being accurate
simple random sampling
What are four aspects of an interviewer that may bias a response/disadvantages to interviewing?
the (1.) personality, (2.) dress, (3.) speech patterns or accents, (4.) nonverbal cues of the interviewer
scientific testing that usually includes an untested control group
experimental research
when test groups from the group or groups tested can be measured against the untested control group to determine the extent of difference
experimental research
when one group gets one message, the second gets another, and so on to see which message is the most effective
experimental research
experimental research is a (formal/informal) scientific research technique
experimental research is generally divide into what two categories?
(1.) laboratory and (2.) field experiments
take place in a carefully controlled environment designed to minimize outside effects
laboratory experiments
take place in real-world settings
field experiments
in a _____ experiment, the researcher sacrifices a great deal of control over the setting to obtain reactions in a real environment. In a _____ setting, the researcher can control many outside stimuli that might contaminate the results of the study
field; laboratory
inviting people into a room to view the message in several forms and then measuring their reactions is an example of _____. The setting ensures that the subjects' responses are based on the message being studied and not on other stimuli that might be in a normal environment.
laboratory experiments
a test-market study using a specific group of young people in their normal environment is an example of a
field experiment
True or false? A lot of public relations research is done in a controlled, laboratory setting.
Other than survey research, _____ are the second most used scientific research method along with content analysis.
field experiments
a formal or scientific study usually accomplished through use of a questionnaire administered to a sample of the audience being studied.
survey research
by far the most common of all types of research processes in public relations
survey research
the formal tool used 90% of the time in public relations
survey research
the most effective way to assess the characteristics of publics in a form that allows the data to be used in planning and evaluating public relations efforts
True or false? Surveys should provide a means of separating publics rather than lumping them all together into one amorphous mass.
done most of the time in public relations simply because it can be done very easily and does not require a lot of time
survey research
refers to careful, detailed sample examinations of the knowledge, perception, attitudes, and opinions of members of various publics.
the general purpose is to obtain a better understanding of the reactions and preferences of a specific public or publics
for public relations efforts, we divide survey data into what two types?
(1.) demographic data and (2.) opinion data
characteristics (age, sex, occupation, etc.) of the people responding to the survey that help a practitioner classify them into one or more publics
demographic data
responses to those questions a practitioner raises concerning the attitudes and perceptions of certain publics about critical issues
opinion data
a group of people representative of an organization's various publics who are called together, usually only once, to give advance reaction to a plan
focus group
the most widely used technique for preliminary research
focus group
a small number of people who share some demographic characteristic
focus group
in focus groups, members are interviewed using _____ questions to encourage interaction and probe the nature of their beliefs
often used prior to survey research to help the researcher have enough information to ask appropriate questions in the survey questionnaire
focus groups
considered informal research because the results cannot be scientifically applied to the larger group or public it represents, but has become one of the most popular of all research tools for the public relations practitioner
focus group
nonscientific research or information gathering
informal research
may include phone calls to the organization as well as letters, sales reports, and discussions with community leaders
informal research
a method of gaining an in-depth understanding of an audience without the rigor of more formal, scientific research methods
informal research
also called preliminary research because it is nonscientific and often done as background research
informal research
informal research is also called _____ because it is nonscientific and often done as background research
preliminary research
What are the six (6) types of informal research?
(1.) record keeping, (2.) key contacts, (3.) special committees, (4,) focus groups, (5.) casual monitoring, (6.) the internet, library, and database sources
frequently, individuals who are _____ in the community, industry, or organization act as key contacts for the public relations practitioner
opinion leaders
the gathering of available information from published sources
secondary research
research from sources already produced, such as books, magazines, newspapers, published opinion polls, Web articles, and other electronic records
secondary research
True or false? You should read the existing research on your topic first, so the term "secondary research" is perhaps misleading.
research already done by somebody else
secondary research
Who establishes policies?
Policies are generally established by an organization's top management as guidelines for decision making. Sometimes policies also originate informally at lower organizational levels as a pattern of decision making occurs over a long period of time. In such cases, top management merely formalizes what is already happening. In other situations, policy may be established either as a result of recommendation from lower-level managers or as a direct result of top management's observation that a problem exists. Outside organizations, such as governmental agencies, also set policies or at least influence them.
generally established by an organization's top management as guidelines for decision making
those who _____ usually seek to guide decision-making activities in ways consistent with organizational objectives
make policy
other purposes of this include improving effectiveness or imposing the values of top management
True or false? Policies can originate at lower organizational levels.
True or false? Outside organizations have no influence on policy.
Health and safety policies in most large organizations have changed considerably in recent years as a direct result of actions by _____.
government agencies
True or false? Public relations departments do not have to plan their daily operations to avoid conflict with policy.
false (they must plan their daily operations to avoid conflict with policy).
Public relations practitioners should be included in the strata of policymakers for any organization to ensure sensitivity to _____.
the interests of its publics
plans for dealing with certain types of situations, particularly common situations and emergencies
standing plans
provide routine responses to recurring situations
standing plans
once set, allow mangers to make more efficient use of their planning time because they do not have to formulate a new plan for every similar situation
standing plans
True or false? Overuse of standing plans may limit an organization's responsiveness to its environment, a critical issue for public relations.
What are the three types of standing plans?
(1.) policies, (2.) procedures, (3.) rules
detailed guidelines for implementing policy decisions
provide detailed instructions for performing a sequence of actions that occur regularly
procedures (standard procedures/standing operating procedures)
emergencies, though infrequent, should be handled through set _____ because of the need to respond quickly and effectively
statements that specify the action to be taken in a particular situation
substitute for decisions; no latitude for application is provided other than to follow or not follow
may be necessary when certain procedures are crucial
an examination of the effectiveness of a public relations effort
to properly evaluate the plan, whether campaign or standing, the procedures for evaluation must be developed when?
before implementation begins in order to have a benchmark with which to measure performance during and at the end of the program
evaluation at various stages during the program; includes the monitoring necessary to make changes while the plan is still being implemented
formative evaluation
provides the summary of what went right or wrong -- and why -- after the campaign has ended
summative evaluation
establishing evaluation techniques involves what four things?
(1.) gathering benchmark data, (2.) evaluating each objective, (3.) determining formative evaluation techniques, (4.) determining summative evaluation techniques
evaluation designs must do what three things?
(1.) be established in advance, (2.) determine the extent to which objectives are achieved, (3.) be applicable to all objectives
may be the most difficult of the terms to define in the planning process
can refer to the type or emphasis of a message, the way we want to approach a task, or a variety of other things
a way or ways you are going to accomplish your objectives
a way or ways you are going to accomplish your objectives; for example, developing a media campaign, creating informational materials, or preparing a special event
developing a media campaign, creating informational materials, or preparing a special event are all examples of
used to define means for achieving objectives more precisely
an intermediate step between objectives and tactics
tend to group like tactics together
active the objective and are a lot more specific -- maybe putting a number on things, such as "we want to have half of the NKU population sign a petition"
True or false? Every public relations plan for a program or campaign has to have a theme.
often the creative piece that has made a public relations campaign successful
an effective theme should do what three things?
(1.) catch the essence of the plan or campaign, (2.) be short (around 3-5 words), (3.) be something that can endure over time
seldom will you have the budget or time to do everything at once. at this point you can develop a _____ to reflect the research done to narrow the task to a manageable size
problem statement
it should define the scope of the effort and recognize any special requirements of the organization, target audiences, and media
problem statement
a planning document that should tell how the purpose will be accomplished for the audience that has been identified
problem statement
should discuss specific tactics and alternatives, define expected outcomes, and specify communication media, activities, and channels to be used
problem statement
the basic direction of an organization or other entity
generally considered to be the top priority within an organization because they provide a sense of direction
what are the four component parts of an organization's goals?
(1.) purpose, (2.) mission, (3.) objectives, (4.) strategies
establishing public relations goals involves specifying _____ and analyzing _____
alternatives; contemporary circumstances
True or false? Because campaigns are usually designed to accomplish unique objectives, they must be planned using nonroutine procedures.
True or false? Campaign planning is a linear process.
false (some of the planning elements must occur simultaneously, some are ongoing, and some may occur before others in certain situations)
What are the 13 elements of campaign planning?
(1.) establishing GOALS in relation to the mission statement, (2.) determining the present situation (PRELIMINARY STUDY), (3.) determining PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES, (4.) researching and selecting your TARGET AUDIENCES, (5.) RESEARCH, (6.) developing a THEME for the program or campaign, (7.) developing the OBJECTIVES, (8.) creating STRATEGIES to accomplish the objectives, (9.) developing TACTICS to implement strategies, (10.) creating EVALUATION techniques, (11.) developing a BUDGET, (12.) working out a TIMETABLE, (13.) assigning PERSONNEL
surveys to measure the attitudes and opinions of specific audiences
public opinion surveys
forecast reaction to initiative or actions contemplated by politicians, government officials, and managers
public opinion surveys
presidents often use these to determine whether to support a legislative issue, a nominee for a cabinet position, or a military action
public opinion surveys
long-range plans concerning a group's major goals and ways of carrying them out, usually made by top management
strategic plans
long-range plans, usually made at the upper levels of management, that involve decisions concerning major goals of organization and policies for their implementation
strategic plans
_____ has become a primary tool to identify and to prioritize the strategic issues upon which an organization's plans are ultimately founded
environmental scanning
the majority of public relations practitioners deal with _____ tactics. However, those who develop the objectives and strategies are the ones giving meaning and direction the effort.
taking an action to be on the offensive
planning from public relations from a _____ activity to a _____ process.
reactive; proactive
public relations practitioners, like most other managers, tend to be _____-oriented.
perhaps the most frequent complaint of public relations practitioners is that other managers ask for their services when?
only after the problem has become unmanageable
for a long time, public relations practitioners have been advocating _____ public relations
when _____ is equipped with _____, negative effects can be minimized, and public relations management can provide well-designed, positive actions rather than hastily conceived reactions
advanced warning; adequate planning
individuals or groups who perceive themselves as having an interest in the actions of an organization
may be consumers, shareholders, employees, or just members of society
generally express themselves through groups that share a common purpose, such as environmental or consumer causes
employees and shareholders are examples of _____ stakeholders
consumer advocates, the handicapped, minorities, low-income segments, senior citizens, volunteer and service groups, and educational organizations are examples of _____ stakeholders
those dependent on telemarketing, small businesses, and large business are examples of _____ stakeholders
media, government, and the Arizona Corporate Commission are examples of _____ stakeholders
people who are instrumental in influencing other people's attitudes or actions
opinion leaders
frequently, these individuals in the community, industry, or organization act as key contacts for the public relations practitioner
opinion leaders
our experiences and our role in society (or _____) shape the way we perceive things
frame of reference
because we all perceive things differently, the major obstacles in communication are
the failure to acknowledge differences and the failure to successfully negotiate those differences in perceptions
True or false? From a communication viewpoint, the perceptions of each of us are "true" because they reflect what we know and what we are.
some understanding begins to occur when there is a common or _____
shared frame of reference
How do you find common or shared frames of reference?
We must find out what other people think and why they think that way so you can attack the problem and send the message in the context of your receiver's frame of reference (his or her knowledge, social-cultural role, attitudes, communication skills, needs, wants), not yours.
The reason you are communicating is that another's _____ is different from yours. The objective is to understand your receiver's perceptions -- not so you can change or criticize them, but in order to broaden them so he or she has an understanding of your _____ and thus has a better ability to support, or at least to not obstruct, the fulfilling of your objectives.
frame of reference; selective perceptions
True or false? You find your stakeholders' frames of reference through research, both formal and informal.
What are the three basic considerations for media selection?
(1.) audiences, (2.) timing, (3.) budgets
Why is identifying media critical?
Because there are no "mass" media anymore (the typical daily newspaper may reach half the homes in a community and the typical network television newscast may reach 10 percent of the viewing audience, many in which your stakeholders are not present)
_____ must be the first consideration in any public relations effort
Uncontrolled media present a special problem to the public relations practitioner because publicity releases must be planned for what two audiences?
(1.) the primary audience (the public for whom the message is intended) and (2.) the editor or reporter who selects or rejects the release
when you do an audience comparison, you are comparing what two things?
media audiences vs. target audiences
What are three questions to ask when determining audiences in media selection?
(1.) How closely do media audiences match stakeholder groups demographically? (2.) Which media reach the largest number of stakeholder group members? (3.) Which offer the best combination of coverage and credibility?
True or false? The question of when the primary audience receives the message may be just as important as whether it receives the message at all.
What are three questions to ask when determining timing in media selection?
(1.) How much time do you have to prepare content? (2.) What kinds of "lead times" prevail among media? (3.) What time factors are implicit in the public relation problem?
when budgeting, usually the first decision that must be made is whether
the message needs to be delivered by more than one medium
Having more money in media selection may mean more _____, whereas less money means you will be doing things like _____.
advertisement spots; interviews and trying to get the newspaper interested in the story
the amount of money available to achieve specified objectives
budget limitations
media that the public relations practitioner has actual control over, such as the company newsletter, pamphlets, and posters
controlled media
includes internal publications, direct mail, posters, and advertising; allows the public relations practitioner to dictate what is published and how it is delivered to the primary audience
controlled media
What are the two types of controlled media that have become especially important to public relations campaigns in the last few years?
(1.) the World Wide Web/Internet, (2.) adveritsing
considered the first public relations mass medium
the World Wide Web/Internet
considered the first public relations mass medium because it allows managed communication to flow directly between organizations and mass audiences without the gate-keeping functions present in other mass media
World Wide Web/Internet
increasingly, the lines between public relations and _____ are blurred in an effort to communicate as effectively as possible
What are the positive/upsides of controlled media? (4)
(1.) total control over message CONTENT (what is written, what it looks like), (2.) total control over DELIVERY, TIME, and PLACE, (3.) REAL COSTS lower than apparent costs because audiences can be more precisely "targeted" (you know the message is getting to them), (4.) the WASTE inherent in uncontrolled media audiences is sharply reduced
What are the negatives/downsides of controlled media? (3)
(1.) relatively COSTLY to produce, (2.) TIME-CONSUMING in development, (3.) lacking the "URGENCY" of news
a method for characterizing publics according to their interest in an issue
stakeholder analysis
provides a more realistic framework for an organization to visualize its environment
stakeholder analysis
a method for differentiating among publics
stakeholder analysis
applying the _____ approach to public relations practice allows actions to be organized around an entire system of stakeholder groups
stakeholder management approach
the goal of this is maximum overall cooperation between the stakeholders and the organization's objectives
stakeholder analysis
True or false? The stakeholder process fundamentally changes public relations communication and action processes.
false (it organizes them for more efficient use)
can determine who should be the object of an action step, what the action should be, what results should be sought, and how each element will fit into the overall plan
stakeholder analysis
True or false? In a stakeholder management system, action of each public is planned together.
false (action for each public is planned separately)
What are the three keys to success within stakeholder analysis?
(1.) understanding stakeholder groups, (2.) knowing the communication channels they use, (3.) developing and disseminating messages through those channels
this theory is based on the premise that certain people in our society are opinion leaders and if these opinion leaders can be convinced to support a certain matter, they will influence others to support it also.
two-step flow of information theory
convincing a minister that a senior center is good to get him to encourage support from church members is an example of
two-step flow of information theory
True or false? Both research and practice have shown that the two-step flow of information theory is correct.
false (although it contains a great deal of truth, research and practice have shown that it is too simplistic since it allows only two levels and presumes a linear flow of information)
when the topic is known but knowledge is limited
when development of interest begins; information sought
when people begin to mentally apply the idea to their individual situations; simultaneously they obtain more information and make a decision to try the new idea
at this point actual application/use begins, usually on a small scale. potential adopters are interested in the practice, techniques, and conditions necessary for application
idea, service, or product has proven worthwhile and has been accepted as something that will make life easier
in the early stages of awareness and interest, _____ are most effective
mass media
in the critical stages of evaluation and trial, emphasis shifts to the influence of _____.
significant others
at the point of adoption, _____ becomes the primary channel.
personal experience
the secondary, or support, path begins with _____, moving to _____ at the evaluation and trial stages and then back again to _____ at adoption
significant others; unbiased third parties; significant others
the way in which information spreads through a public
diffusion of information
True or false? More often than not, the action implemented to accomplish a public relations plan can be explained as an attempt to spread information within a target audience.
a term used to describe the way in which new ideas are adopted by society
Publics or target audiences are social systems that public relations practitioners seek to influence. Therefore, it is important that our knowledge about the _____ be applied to the public relations process.
diffusion of information
people who know about a problem but don't act on it
aware public
recognizes a need but is not prone to any action, such as accepting a new idea
aware public
develop from latent publics after they recognize the problem
aware public
What are three aspects of an organization's relationships with media representatives that can be measured?
(1.) the media's view of those relationships, (2.) the consequences which follow from news release output, (3.) the activity of the company media representative
one method used to check for environmental influences, even when the practitioner has a small budget and staff, is _____
focus group interviewing
composed of individuals randomly selected from a public who meet to discuss the campaign; presented with the elements of the campaign and then directed through a discussion of its effects and the causes of those effects
focus group
an ongoing assessment of the effectiveness of public relations actions considering the impact of uncontrolled elements
open-system evaluation
True or false? Many public relations programs are too complex for simple before-and-after measures.
attempts to incorporate factors outside the control of the public relations campaign when assessing its effectiveness
open-system evaluation
emphasizes the extent to which the public relations function is encompassed by numerous other aspects of an organization and its environment. Factors like unintended audiences and organizational administration are also included.
open-system evaluation
True or false? Public relations messages should be expected to have as much effect on the managers and employees of an organization as they do on other publics.
True or false? Many of the factors included in the open-system evaluation are easy to measure accurately.
false (they are difficult to measure accurately)
the value of the open-system method of evaluating is that it
considers public relations in the broader spectrum of overall organizational effectiveness
the value of the _____ method of evaluating is that it considers public relations in the broader spectrum of overall organizational effectiveness
_____ evaluation is the model most widely used by public relations staffs
closed-system evaluation
What are the two major drawbacks/disadvantages of closed-systems?
(1.) just because a message was transmitted to the intended audience in an understandable form and produced favorable attitudes does not mean the campaign goals were reached, and (2.) the likelihood that desired results will occur, especially in terms of actual behavior changes, is influenced by a number of factors outside the elements of the campaign.
What are the six (6) factors considered in the standard pretest and posttest evaluation design?
(1.) productions, (2.) distribution, (3.) interest, (4.) reach, (5.) understanding, (6.) attitudes
an accounting is conducted of every public relations tool used in the campaign. The amount of material actually produced and the total cost of production yield important cost-effectiveness information. The amount of time and budget devoted to teach segment of a public relations effort can be reassessed with this type of data.
the evaluation design includes the channels through which the messages of the campaign are distributed. Note that although these kinds of data provide a reasonable measure of the efficiency of the campaign, distributions do not really address the issue of effectiveness
reader interest surveys determine what people read in various types of publications. A representative sample of the total potential reading audience is surveyed to obtain a quantitative measure of what readers actually consume, but they do not measure comprehension or the effect of the message on the reader.
reader interest surveys not only provide information concerning whether a story was read but also describe the people who read it. The information can be valuable because messages frequently reach publics other than those for whom they are intended. A reasonably accurate measure of which audiences are being reached by which messages is imperative to any evaluation effort.
although it is important to determine whether the target audience is being reached, it is equally important to know whether the audience can understand the message. A public relations campaign cannot be considered successful if the public does not get the point.
creating and maintaining positive attitudes or changing negative ones is the central purpose of all public relations activity. Therefore, measuring attitudes, or preferably attitude change, is a highly prized form of evaluation. Frequently a pretest/posttest measurement is conducted to determine the amount of shane in the attitudes of target publics that can be attributed to the public relations campaign. Many factors, ranging from the need for a scientifically selected sample to the construction of a questionnaire that will not bias results, make attitude measurement a difficult task for most practitioners.
a pre-/post-event assessment that considers only the controlled message elements
closed-system evaluation
limits its scope to the message and events planned for the campaign and their effects on the intended publics
closed-system evaluation
the model of public relations evaluation most frequently used
closed-system evaluation
the intent of the system is to test the messages and media of a public relations campaign before they are presented to the intended public
closed-system evaluation
this pretest strategy is designed to uncover miscalculations that may have gone unnoticed in the planning stage. The posttest evaluation is conducted after the campaign has been under way long enough to produce results. Posttest data can be compared with pretest results and campaign objectives to evaluate the effectiveness of the effort. These results also provide input for planning the next campaign.
closed-system evaluation
once it is determined that a message has reached its intended audience, the practitioner must evaluate the _____
audience's response
frequently, this type of information can be obtained through various message pretesting methods; the resulting data help predict whether the message will cause a favorable or unfavorable reaction
audience response
can also determine if the message attracts attention, arouses interest, or gains audience understanding
audience response
frequently, _____ can be predicted by tracking media treatment of stories in terms of favorable, neutral, and unfavorable tendencies.
audience response
involves whether and how well intended publics were reached, which messages reached them, and who else heard the messages
audience coverage
perhaps the first point that must be documented in evaluating any public relations effort is whether
the intended audiences were reached
What are the two methods used to help figure out audience coverage?
(1.) first, accurate records must be kept of what messages were prepared and where they were sent, (2.) second, a system must be used to keep track of which releases were used and by whom
True or false? Massive amounts of publicity always have value.
false; massive amounts of publicity have no value unless some of it actually reaches the intended audience
the measurement of _____ involves more than just the ratio of releases sent with releases used. The practitioner must also be able to specify what audiences (both intended and unintended) were reached by which media
audience coverage
this type of data is available from readership surveys and audience rating information obtainable through media advertising sales departments
audience coverage
What are the four dimensions that can be applied to impact analysis?
(1.) audience coverage, (2.) audience response, (3.) campaign impact, (4.) environmental mediation
What are the four dimensions that can be applied to impact analysis?
(1.) audience coverage, (2.) audience response, (3.) campaign impact, (4.) environmental mediation
True or false? Measuring the impact or results of a public relations effort is always simple.
false; measuring the impact or results of a public relations effort is always difficult and never totally objective.
the practitioner must be concerned with the impact of the campaign as a whole. In this case, the whole is not equal to the sum of the parts. If a campaign is correctly researched and planned, its elements will interact to produce an effect that is much greater than the sum of the response to the individual messages. Therefore, it is important to measure the cumulative impact of a public relations campaign, keeping in mind the goals developed in the planning phase.
campaign impact
practitioners must realize that the public relations campaign is not the only influence on the attitudes and behaviors of their publics. Public relations campaigns exist in an environment of social processes that can have as much or more effect on the goals of the effort as the prepared messages do. For this reason, the measured results must be interpreted in light of various other forces in operation.
environmental mediation
a process specifying that supervisors and employees will jointly set goals for employees; usually followed by a joint evaluation of the employee's progress after a set period of time
management by objectives (MBO)
the use of this will help alleviate the measurement problem facing public relations
management by objectives (MBO)
although frequently used for evaluating individual employees, its basic elements can also be applied to programs, projects, and work groups
management by objectives (MBO)
the object is to prepare advance statements, usually during the planning phase, concerning legitimate expectations from a given effort. These must be mutually agreed on by all those involved before the action occurs. When the set time for evaluation arrives, objectives can be compared with accomplishments to assess the degree of success.
management by objectives (MBO)
What are the five basic MBO steps?
(1.) work group involvement, (2.) manager-subordinate involvement, (3.) determination of intermediate objectives, (4.) determination of measures of achievement, (5.) review, evaluation, and recycling
within MBO, the idea that if more than one person will be working on the project, the entire group should be involved in setting the objectives
work group involvement
within MBO, the idea that once the objectives of the group are established, each subordinate should work with they manager of the project to define a set of individual objectives. They keep the project moving by ensuring that everyone understands his or her role.
manager-subordinate involvement
within MBO, this step defines a series of objectives along the way toward the overall target. Setting them permits in-progress evaluation to be done more precisely and makes it possible to consider midcourse corrections before the project gets out of hand.
determination of intermediate objectives
within MBO, the point when the effort will be considered complete should be specified in terms of either a time element or the achievement of a stated objective
determination of measures of achievement
within MBO, because no objective can be defined with absolute precision or achieved perfectly, it is important to use information gained from each evaluation process to improve the planning for the next public relations effort
review, evaluation, and recycling
the final "phase" of evaluation with the goal to assess the program's end results
outcome evaluation
also known as summative evaluation
outcome evaluation
evaluation to determine the success or failure in reaching a program's or campaign's objectives that is done at the completion of the program
outcome evaluation
when objectives and results are compared to determine the variance
outcome evaluation
at this point, all prior evaluations become important for explaining the context in which the program was implemented and for interpreting the results
outcome evaluation
after this, an evaluation report transmits this information, along with any suggestions for planning future efforts, to an appropriate decision maker
outcome evaluation
when you do this, you are literally looking at whether someone bought the product or changed their behavior, etc.
outcome evaluation
What are the four steps of outcome evaluation?
(1.) compare outcomes with objectives, (2.) interpret results, (3.) report results to management, (4.) make recommendations concerning subsequent programs or program cycles
involves measuring the results of a public relations effort to determine its effect on an organization's program
impact analysis
when _____ is evaluated, practitioners measure the number per percentage of the audience who learn the message content, who change their opinions, who change attitudes, and who behave in the desired fashion
when _____ is evaluated, practitioners measure the number per percentage of the audience who learn the message content, who change their opinions, who change attitudes, and who behave in the desired fashion. They may also determine if the problem is solved or the goal is achieved.
evaluating _____ is one of the most important aspects of evaluation because this is the goal -- we want them to buy into what we are sending out
Evaluating impact involves what six (6) criteria?
(1.) number of who learn message content, (2.) number who change opinions, (3.) number who change attitudes, (4.) number who behave in desired fashion, (5.) goal achieved/problem solved, (6.) social and cultural change
How do we evaluate impact?
by measuring the number or percentage who learn the message content, who change their opinions, who change attitudes, and who behave in the desired fashion. They may also determine if the problem is solved or the goal is achieved as well as social and cultural change.