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164 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Glory, God, Gold

Starting in the 1400's, European powers began to look to expand their influence outward. They learned about North and South American continents and began to colonize these areas. The three main motivations for exploration of the New World Were...

John Cabot

(Great Britain) Explored the east coast of Canada

Christopher Columbus

(Italy, sailed for Spain) "Discovered" North America while looking for a western route to India

Amerigo Vespucci

(Italy) The first to realize the Americas were separate continents from Asia; America is named after him

Vasco de Balboa

(Spain) First to reach the Pacific by crossing Central America

Juan Ponce de Leon

(Spain) First to explore Florida while searching for the Fountain of Youth

Ferdinand Magella

(Spain) First to circumnavigate the globe by sailing around the southern tip of South America

Hernan Cortez

(Spain) Conquered Mexico from the Aztecs

Francisco Pizzaro

(Spain) Conquered the Incan Empire

Jacques Cartier

(France) Explored Canada and claimed it for France

Fernando de Soto

(Spain) Discovered the Mississippi River

Francisco Coronado

(Spain) Explored the American southwest

Walter Raleigh

(Great Britain) Established English colonies in North America

Henry Hudson

(Great Britain) Explored northeastern North America and the Arctic

James Cook

(Great Britain) Explored the Pacific; discovered Hawaii

New England Colonies (New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut)

-Rocky soil was poor for farming

-Relied on fishing and shipping industries

-Most people lived in or near towns

-Major City: Boston

Middle Atlantic Colonies (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware)

-Good conditions for farming

-The "breadbasket" of the colonies

-Fur trade

-Major city: Philadelphia

Southern Colonies (Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia)

-Plantation farming (tobacco, indigo, rice, cotton)


-More rural population

-Major cities: Richmond, Charleston

Cause of the American Revolution

The colonists did not have representation in the British Parliament, which levied the taxes, so they didn't think it was fair that they should be taxed. After failed attempts at negotiation and compromise, tensions escalated and eventually erupted into war - The American Revolution

In the late 1700s, the British found themselves in need of money after the costly French and Indian War, so they began to impose many new taxes on the colonists. These included:

Stamp Act (1765)

Townshend Acts (1767)

Tea Act (1773)

Intolerable Acts (1774)

The battle that began the American Revolution

Battle of Lexington and Concord in 1775. This was soon followed by the Battle of Bunker Hill

When was the Declaration of Independence signed?

July 4, 1776. But, the war continued and the French eventually allied with the colonies

Which battle was the final victory won by the Americans in the American Revolution?

Battle of Yorktown in 1781

The Articles of Confederation

Americas first attempt at a government organized aroun this document (Too weak, ultimately failed)

U.S. Constitution

Replaced the Articles of Confederation in 1787

Louisiana Purchase

Doubled the size of united states. President Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana Territory from france (1803)

Manifest Destiny

The belief that the idea that the U.S. should one day possess the lands all the way to the pacific ocean, was the nation's god-given right

When did the U.S. Purchase Florida from spain?


When was Texas annexed (Added?)


When was Oregon Territory acquired?


The Mexican Cession

1848, which followed the mexican-american war, resulted in the acquisition of the territories that would become California, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah.

The Gadsden Purchase

1853 From Mexico, completed the territories of new mexico and Arizona

When was Alaska purchased? When was Hawaii annexed?

Alaska - 1867 (From Russia)

Hawaii - 1898

Civil War

The South seceded the union, forming confederate states of America. President Abraham Lincoln, did not accept the secession and fought the civl war (1861-1865) in order to preserve the unity of the nation. In the end, the North won, the nation was reunited, the slavery was abolished with the passage of the 13th Amendment


The period after the Civil War.

Industrial Revolution


World War I


Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, United States


Central Powers: Germany, Austrian-Hungariean Empire, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria

Ended by the Treaty of Versailles

The Interwar Period

The period that United States did not want to get dragged into another war and declined to join the League of Nations

Roaring Twenties

The 1920s a period of economic prosperity for the United States. Mass consumerism, buying on credit, and the growth of the power of the stock market.

Woman gained the right to vote, automobiles became popular and jazz came to be

Great Depression

Hit in 1929. Excess spending, speculation, agricultural overproduction, buying on margin.

Inflation and unemployment were high, banks failed, families throughout the nation found themselves enduring economic hardship.

Did not come to and end until World War II jumpstarted the economy by providing industrial jobs and demanding a high output of military goods.

New Deal

Program by Franklin D. Roosevelt, which gave the government a more active role in the economy

World War II

(1939-1945) Broke out in Europe. U.S. tried to remain neutral, but entered when the japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in 1941.

United States in World War II

Joined the war on the side of the allies and fought both in Europe against Germans and Italians, and in Asia against the Japanese.

End of WWII With Japan

U.S. dropped the first atomic bomb on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Treaty of Paris

Concluded WWII. United Nations was soon established as an international peacekeeping organization to replace the League of Nations. U.S. joined as a prominent member

The Cold War

United States Vs. Soviet Union (Russia)

Decades of competition and threats without direct military conflict (Both sides had nuclear weapons)

Proxy Wars

Korean War and Vietnam War

Korean War


Communist North Korea (aided by the Soviet Union) fight to take over

South Korea (aided by the United States)

-Conflict ended in ceasefire with no changes in boundaries

Vietnam War


North Vietnam and Communist South Vienam (Viet Cong) aided by Soviet Union VS.

South Vietnam (backed by U.S)

-The United States eventually withdrew from the long and unpopular war, and the North won, uniting the two territories into the single communist nation of Vietnam

-Ended in 1991 when the Soviet Union dissolved due to internal problems

The Post-Cold War Era

1990s marked by a period of economic growth and prosperity

-Rise of the Internet Age

United States was involved in international conflicts during the 1990s, including Persian Gulf War and Bosnia

-The US has fought in long wards in afghanistan and in Iraq


Government maintains strict control over the people


Rule by a single, authoritarian leader


Rule by the people (Via majority votes)

Direct democracy

The people vote directly on laws


A single ruler has absolute authority and is unencumbered by a constitution


Government by a single, hereditary ruler


Rule by a small group of people


Citizens elect representatives to make laws for them


Rule by a religious group


A government that has complete control over all aspects of citizens' lives and employs censorship, coercion, and oppressive means to ensure compliance

United States Constituation

Outlines operations of the government

Federal System

Power is divided between the national and state governments

delegated powers

powers allocated to national government

reserved powers

powers that belong to the states

concurrent powers

powers that are shared by both the national and state governments

Separation of powers

power divided between three branches of government

Executive Branch

-President and Vice President

-Elected for 4-year terms

-Enforce the laws

-Appoints Supreme Court nominees, can veto laws

Legislative Branch

-Congress (House of Reps and Senate)

-House: Elected for 2-year terms

Senate: Elected for 6-year term

-Make the laws

-Must approve supreme court nominees

-Can override presidental veto

-Can impeach president of supreme bout justices

Judicial Branch

-Supreme Court

-Appointed by the President and approved by congress; serve for life

-Interpret Laws

-Can declare laws or presidential actions unconstitutional

Bill of Rights

First 10 amendments

1st Amendment

Freedom of Speech, religion, press, assembly and petition

2nd Amendment

Right to bear arms

3rd Amendment

Protection against quartering of soldiers

4th Amendment

Protection against illegal search and seizure

5th Amendment

Right to due process; protection against self-incrimination and double jeopardy

6th Amendment

Rights to a speedy trial by jury, to hear accusations and confront the accuser, to witnesses, and to counsel

7th Amendment

Right to trial by jury in civil cases

8th Amendment

Protection against cruel and unusual punishment

9th Amendment

Protects rights not enumerated in the constitution

10th Amendment

Limits the powers of the federal government to those designated in the constitution

Mayflower Compact

1620 Set up a temporary government for the Pilgrims at Plymouth Colony

Common Sense

Thomas Paine 1775

Pamphlet written to convince people to support the American Revolution

Declaration of Independence

Second Continental Congress 1776

Started reasons for the American Revolution and asserted the nation's independence from Great Britain

Articles of Confederation

Second Continental Congress 1781

Set up the first government for the newly independent United States

Federalist Papers

James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay 1787

Papers written to convince people to ratify the constitution

U.S. Constitution

Constitutional Convention 1787

Document that set up the current system of U.S. government

Farewell Address

George Washington 1796

Departing president Washington advised the young nation against political factions and entangled foreign alliances

Gettysburg Address

Abraham Lincoln 1863

Speech given by President Lincoln in the midst of the Civil War as a memorial to those who died at the Battle of Gettysburg and to motivate the North to keep fighting to preserve the Union and to end slavery

Emancipation Proclamation

Abraham Lincoln 1865

Declared an end to slavery in the Confederate States


Divides the Northern and Southern Hemispheres by a line of latitude

Prime Meridian

Divides Eastern and Western hemispheres by a line of longitude


Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, Southern Oceans


Hot and wet year round


Temperature varies widely from day to night; very little precipitation


Warm and wet in the summer, cool and dry in the winter


Found on large land masses, this climate has fairly low precipitation and temperatures can vary widely


Very cold; permanently frozen ground


Mountain regions that are cold and snowy


Hot and dry; landscape varies - could contain plains, hills, and or mountains

Deciduous forest

contains many trees; four distinct seasons (Spring, summer, fall, winter)


Flat land with very little precipitation


Interior flatlands with lots of grass and other low plant life; tropical or temperate climate


Tropical climate; dense vegetation


Grasslands with warm temperatures year-round with a dry and rainy season


Cold, snowy winters and warm, humid summers


Very cold, little vegetation, polar climate


Chains of islands (example: japan)


A body of water that is an inlet to a larger body of water such as an ocean or a sea

A man-made waterway


A narrow body of water that connects two other bodies of water


Low, Wet, triangular piece of land at the mouth of a river


Area with little to no precipitation


A large body of water partially enclosed by land that connects to an ocean or sea


a piece of land surrounded on all sides by water


a very narrow strip of land connecting two larger pieces of land with water on both sides


a body of water completely surrounded by land


a very high rocky formation


a piece of land with water on three sides


Flat, grassy lands


A long, flowing body of water that empties into a larger body of water


a large saltwater body, smaller than an ocean


Low area between mountains


The study of humans, past and present


Looks at human social behavior, including its causes, development, and organizations


Mesopotamian societies

-Earliest form of writing (cuneiform)

-First written law code (Code of Hammurabi)

-Organization into city-states


-Writing system (Hieroglyphics)

-Paper (papyrus)

-Architecture (pyramids)

-Strong government, military, and monetary system

-Advancements in math

Huang He (Yellow River) Valley Civilization

-Civil Service

-Advancements in math and science

Indus Valley Civilization

-Build major cities

-Advancements in math and science


-Dynastic cycle - leaders had mandate of heaven

-elaborate bureaucracy

-Religions/philosophies - Daoism and Confucianism

-Advancements in math, science, and technology


-Organized into city-states

-Most city-states were oligarchies but Athens was direct democracy

-Polytheistic religion

-High cultural period in art, poetry, philosophy, theatre, and architecture


-Two major governmental periods - Republic and Empire

-Unified law code - Twelve Tables

-Extensive trade network

-Advanced military

-Engineering - aqueducts, road system

-polytheistic religion originally; ;ater adopted Christianity


-Caste System (Rigid social class structure)

-Math - concept of zero, decimal system, arabic numerals

-Religions - Hinduism and Buddhism

-Advancements in medicine, including the invention of plastic surgery

Balance of trade

A measure of nation's exports vs. imports


A measure of a nation's exports vs. imports


The use of resources


An overall decrease in the price of goods and services


A long period of economic decline, usually marked by inflation, high unemployment, and industrial decline


Goods sold to another country


goods bought from another country


An overall increase in the price of goods and services


The difference between revenue and cost


A period of slow economic growth


When demand exceeds supply


When supply exceeds demand


Cause of World War I

Nations were building up their military personnel and weapons, both as a precautionary measure and as a sign of national prestige


Cause of World War I

Nations began to form competing alliances. Two major alliances formed in Europe - The tripe Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy) and the Triple Entente (Great Britain, France, and Russia)


Cause of World War I

Nations were competing for economic and political control of overseas territories


Cause of World War I

National pride was high as nations competed. Nationalist movements within nations also contributed to unrest. For example, several ethnic groups wanted independence from Austria-Hungary

Russian Revolution


Overthrow of the Russian Czar and establishment of a communist state called the Soviet Union

Nationalist movements

In Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia

Spanish Civil War


Great Depression

Worldwide economic collapse of the 1930's


The study of how economics works on a large scale, such as in a whole nation


The study of economics on a smaller scale, looking at the decisions and impacts of individuals, small groups, and specific markets


System in which property and the means of a production are privately owned

A market economy

Profit motive

encourages hard work and innovation


The purest form of capitalism, in which the government takes a completely hands-off approach to the economic sector and allows market forces to regulate themselves


A system in which property is controlled collectively rather than individually


The purest form of socialism. Everything is owned in common and there is no private property and no social classes

Planned economy (Planned)

An economy in which the government has total control of the economy through centralized planning

Mixed economoy

A blend of capitalist and socialist principles, with both publicly and privately owned business operating at the same time

Closed Economy

Self-sufficient and cut off from outside influences

Open Economy

allows for trade with other nations

Subsistence economy

People only produce that which is needed to survive