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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Geography is the study of places. It has 4 components
-Physical characteristics (lands & vegetation)
-Geopolitical information (boundaries & capital cities)
-Demographics (size, density, & population)
-Economic information (agricultural & manufacturing)
5 themes of geography
-Location (where something happened; relative location; exact location [longitude, latitude])
-Place (physical and human characteristics of a location)
-Interaction of people and environment
-Movement (how people, goods, and ideas move about the globe)
-Region (area with similar characteristics)
Phenomena
the combination of the aspects of the earth's surface and the activities that occur on earth
Climate Map
Weather and typical climate conditions of a region
Conformal Map
Presents land masses and retention of proper shapes; often distorted
Equal-Area map
Shows land areas with relatively proper sizes; distortions can happen
Fact-book maps
Examines actual facts of events or activities in certain regions or specific places (life expectancy rates, energy consumption)
Historical Map
Illustrates the people of an area and the population (trade routes, religion)
Mental Map
Sketch
Physical Map
actual geographical surfaces (mountains, rivers, fault lines)
Outline Map
Some geographic features but not others
Political Map
Demonstrates government boundaries and territorial borders
Relief Map (topographical map)
3-D variation in the topography of land and water areas
Thematic Map
Demonstrates the location of specific ideas or distributions
Seven major continents (in size order)
Asia, Africa, N. America, S. America, Antarctica, Europe, Australia
Five major oceans (largest to smallest)
Accounts for ___ % of earth's surface
___% of the world's water supply
Pacific, Atlantic, Arctic, Indian, Southern Oceans
70%
97%
Three major seas
defined as____
South China Sea, Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean Sea
large area of water being partly enclosed by land
Anthropologist
studies the history of people such as culture and language
Cartographer
studies the science or practice of map drawing
Geographer
studies the formations and the earth's composition
Meteorologist
studies the climates and the affects on the earth
Sociologists
studies the behaviors of people and how they impact the world
Topographer
designs, describes, and develops maps
Region
exude unique and distinct attributes related to both the people who live there and the land forms that are present
Regions described by:
Formal
Functional
Perceptual
Formal--defined through either common human features (language, religion, nationality, culture) or common physical features (climate, landform, vegetation)

Functional--organized around central hub w/ surrounding areas connected to the center by transportation systems, communication systems, manufacturing or trading

Perceptual--constructed around human feelings and attitudes of the area
Place
human created areas which are a part of the earth's surface
Physical Characteristics
water systems, animal life, plant life, landforms, climate
Human Characteristics
values, religious beliefs, language systems, political structures, economic methods, socioeconomic status
archipelago
chain or group of islands in a sea or ocean
atoll
ring of coral that forms an island in a sea or ocean
butte
high isolated flat top or hill with steep sides formed by impact of tectonic plates
canyon
carved by a river
cape
narrow pointed piece of land that juts out from a coastline into a body of water
col
mountain pass; depression in the summit line of a chain of mountains
delta
silt, sand and rock formed at mouth of a river often in the shape of a triangle
dunes
hill or ridge made of sand and shaped by wind
isle
small island or peninsula
islet
small island usually isolated
isthmus
narrow strip of land connecting two larger pieces with water on two sides
pinnacle
highest point of rock, ice, or land
summit
highest point of a mountain
tundra
cold, treeless area, considered coldest biome
bay
area of water partly enclosed by land and smaller than a gulf
canal
artificial waterway
channel
body of water that connects two larger bodies of water
cove
horseshoe shaped body of water
estuary
where a river meets the ocean or sea
fjord
long narrow sea inlet bordered by steep cliffs
glacier
slow moving river of ice
gulf
a part of ocean or sea that is partly surrounded by land
lagoon
shallow body of water located alongside of a coast
marsh
freshwater
river
empties into a sea or ocean
sea
partly or completely surrounded by land
sound
wide inlet of sea or ocean that is parallel to the coastline
strait
narrow body of water that connects two larger bodies of water
swamp
freshwater wetland
tributary
stream or river that flows into a larger waterway
tropical
high temperatures year round with large amounts of rain
dry
limited rain with huge daily temperature ranges
temperate
warm and dry summers with cool and wet winters
cold (continental)
seasonal temperatures vary widely and overal precipitation is not high; interior of land masses
polar
extremely cold with permanent ice and tundra present
alpine
mountain regions around the world with an altitude of at least 10,000 feet; snow, high winds, ice and cold
chaparral (desert)
plains, rocky hills, mountain slope; hot and dry
deciduous forest
located near an ocean; four separate seasons
desert
Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn where it's hot and dry or near the Arctic where it's extremely cold and snowy
grasslands
interior of continents and middle latitudes; either tall grass or short grass
rainforest
produces ___ % of world's oxygen
near the equator; year round warmth and high rainfall levels
savanna
near the equator and edges of tropical rain forests; warm temperatures year round with two seasons (winter long and dry; summer short and wet)
taiga (borreal forest)
____ biome in the world
Alaska and Canada at the top of the planet just below tundra biome; winters cold with much snow and summers warm, humid, and rainy
-largest biome
tundra
world's (coldest or hottest) and (wettest or driest) biome
from latitude 55 to 70 degrees north; ground permanently frozen and trees cannot grow; cold dark winter with soggy warm summer where sun shines 24 hours a day
system
a set of connected parts functioning together; 2 critical to earth are human and physical systems
community
populations of different plants and animals
ecosystem
when a community interacts with three components of a physical environment; an interwoven structure that produces and consumes energy
atmosphere
air--climate and meteorology
lithosphere
ground and surface--rock formation, soil formation, plate tectonics, and erosion
hydrosphere
water--water cycle, currents of rivers, and tides of oceans
biosphere
life--ecosystems, habitats, and plant and animal realm
3 primary ways humans impact earth
consume natural resources, build structures, compete for control