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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Why take dental radiographs?

List 8 reasons:

1. To see pathology hiding below gingiva or inside tooth

2. Evaluate area where teeth appear to be missing

3. Documentation of supporting treatment decisions

4. Legal document / client communication

5. Post-op confirmation of proper extraction

6. Endodontics - procedures, involving the soft inner tissue of the teeth, called the pulp.

7. Follow progression of plural pathology / periodontal disease

8. Pre-purchase exams on show dogs (to see if proper # of teeth are there)

What is the most common ailment in small animals?

Periodontal disease

Patients presented for routine cleaning are often found to have ___________ _________.

Mobile teeth

What aids the decision to extract, perform flap surgery, or provide only medical therapy? (3)

1. radiographs

2. probing depths

3. visual exam

True or False:

Radiographs allow us to measure the degree of bone loss


True or False:

Radiographs cannot document lesions

FALSE - they can show lesions

True or False:

The X-ray shows lesions both above and below the gum line


Legal use of radiographs is extremely important in supporting

treatment decisions

Serial radiographs to follow progression of periodontal or endodontal disease are taken how frequently?

At 3 to 6 month intervals

When do you take radiographs?

List 8 scenarios:

1. When you see any visible abnormality

2. Tooth is mobile

3. Tooth is fractured

4. Tooth is discolored

5. Furcation exposure is present (periodontal disease) (**furcation = space between roots)

6. When teeth are missing (without explanation)

7. When a feline ondoclastic resorptive lesion (FORL) is noted (similar to a cavity)

8. Prior to extraction

The gumline *should* follow ___________________.

Along the crown of the tooth

Receding gums can affect the tooth's _____________.


Furcation -

visible space between roots (can see it due to gingival recession)

When are FULL - MOUTH radiographs needed?


1. Basically every time they come in for a dental procedure

2. When periodontal disease is present anywhere in the mouth

3. When FORLs are diagnosed

4. If there are fractured teeth of unknown origin

5. When evaluating # of secondary teeth in a puppy or kitten as part of a soundness exam prior to purchase

6. To evaluate oral and facial swellings

Advantages of using a dental radiograph machine:

1. economical

2. extension arms allow vertical, horizontal, and rotational movement (cuts down on patient positioning)

3. Long arm can reach two closely located operators areas

4. Do it at dental surgery table (not have to move to X-ray room)

5. Shorter film focal length = less scatter

Anatomy of Dental X-Ray Unit:

What is a PID?

Position Indicating Device

Anatomy of Dental X-Ray Unit:

What does the PID do?

It's and extension placed on the tube head at the collimator attachment

To minimize the amount of radiation exposure the PID is _______ - ___________.


The shape of the PID may be either ______________ or ____________.



Which shape PID limits the beam size to that of a #2 periodical film?


PIDs come in 3 lengths:

8" (short cone)

12" (long cone)

16" (long cone)

Which give better detail: long cone or short cone?

Long cone gives better detail

What is the advantage of using a short cone?

Less exposure

Control Panel contains what 3 things:

1. timer

2. kVp regulator

3. mAs regulator

On most dental units, the kVP typically ranges from:

50 - 100

On most dental units, the mAs is usually set at _________ or ________ mA

seven (7mA)

fifteen (15mA)

With dental units the FFC (Focal Film Distance) depends on ___________ __________.

Cone length

Radiation Safety:

All personnel in the are of dental unit while in use should be at least ______ feet from the tube head at an angle of _______ to ______ degrees to the beam.

6 feet

90 - 135

Or, wear __________

lead-lined protective gear: apron, gloves, thyroid shield

If taking X-rays wear your...

dosimeter badge

Never hand-hold the film or sensor when taking digital radiographs


NYSDH says to check unit every ____ years



There are three sizes of dental film:

1. child periapical size 0 (ZERO)

2. Adult periapical size 2

3. Occlusal size 4

Child periapial size 0 film is used mostly in what animals?

cats, exotics, small dogs

7/8 x 1 5/8 inches

Adult periapical size 2 film is also called __________ __________

standard size

1 1/4 x 1 9/16 inches

Occlusal size 4 film is used to radiograph ___________ teeth and for _____________ studies.



2 1/4 x 3 inches

Which film size is the most commonly used?

Adult size 2

What are the 4 parts of the dental x-ray film packet?

1. outside layer = paper or plastic coating (white front with raised dot in one corner to orient film) *White side is placed TOWARD the TEETH

2. Lead foil sheet to absorb scatter

3. Black paper around film to protect it

4. film (in the center)

Film Processing:

Can happen in two possible places:

1. darkroom

2. chair side

Whole process of chair-side developing takes how long?

1 minute

Digital imaging using a ________ _______ instead of film.

sensor pad

Digital imaging reduced radiation by what percentage range?

75% - 90%

Dental X-ray accessories:

1. film holders to keep film in position in mouth: swabs, paper towels, foam-covered hair rollers

2. Bite blocks to keep mouth open - foam rolls, wedges, syringe barrels

3. Viewer - small light box with 2X magnifier on sliding carrier or plexiglass X-ray magnifier to magnify image on viewer

4. Felt pen or X-ray marker to ID film

5. Envelopes or film mounts