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49 Cards in this Set

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1. (p. 557) The U.S. social welfare system differs markedly from those of Western European democracies, a situation that is attributable in large part to America's 

A. cultural emphasis on individualism, and federal system of government.

B. greater wealth, and cultural emphasis on charitable acts.

C. weak party system, and separation of executive and legislative power.

D. egalitarian ethos, and pluralist group system.

E. dependence on foreign oil.

2. (p. 541) The poverty line is defined as

A. the income level below which 10 percent of the American people live.

B. three times the annual cost of a thrifty food budget for an urban family of four.

C. the annual cost of all goods and services that a person can reasonably be expected to want.

D. the percentage of homeless people.

E. the income level below which 20 percent of the American people live.
3. (p. 556) According to survey data, 

A. Americans prefer money as the primary form of welfare assistance.

B. most Americans believe that welfare recipients could get along without assistance if they tried.

C. Americans prefer government jobs through government programs as the primary form of welfare assistance.

D. the vast majority of Americans believe there should be absolutely no government services for the poor of any kind.

E. None of these answers is correct.
4. (p. 543) ________ has the highest child poverty rate among the major industrialized nations. 

A. Sweden

B. Norway

C. France

D. Germany

E. The United States
5. (p. 557) The bureaucratic costs of welfare are substantially lower in Europe because most European countries 

A. farm out their welfare programs to the local level, where administration is more efficient.

B. require that each individual prove his or her own eligibility.

C. do not allow universal eligibility.

D. have unitary rather than federal systems.

E. offer far fewer welfare benefits than the United States.
6. (p. 540) Poverty is a condition that today affects roughly one in ________ Americans.

A. two

B. three

C. eight

D. twenty

E. fifty
7. (p. 543) In his book, Losing Ground, Charles Murray argues that

A. welfare reform can only be enacted through a new war on poverty.

B. welfare programs should be modeled after European models and not kept in their current form.

C. welfare programs create a foundation for a permanent underclass of unproductive people.

D. welfare programs should be based on the principle of efficiency, not the principle of equity.

E. welfare programs should be terminated completely.
8. (p. 551) ________ was terminated in 1996.

A. The Food Stamps program

B. Medicaid

C. Medicare


9. (p. 547) The term entitlement refers to a program 

A. that provides indirect payments to individuals, such as funding for public schools.

B. benefiting individuals, designed specifically to alleviate the hardships of old age.

C. that requires the payment of benefits to any individual who meets the eligibility criteria.

D. of social welfare for which citizenship is the only criterion of eligibility.

E. None of these answers is correct.
10. (p. 553-554) The EITC (Earned Income Tax Credit) represents a reallocation of income to 

A. wealthy individuals.

B. lower-income working individuals.

C. middle-class taxpayers.

D. corporations.

E. all working families.
11. (p. 545) Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal represented the concept of ________ government. 

A. positive

B. negative

C. laissez-faire

D. subnational

E. None of these answers is correct.
12. (p. 547) The defining characteristic of a social insurance program is that

A. eligibility is restricted to individuals who paid special payroll taxes during their working years.

B. it is administered jointly by the national government and the states.

C. it is targeted at those who are most in need of welfare assistance.

D. it is administered through private insurance companies.

E. None of these answers is correct.
13. (p. 548) Social insurance programs have high levels of public support because 

A. of their self-financing feature.

B. they are based on an equality principle—all citizens are eligible for the benefits and all recipients receive the same level of benefits.

C. their cost is consistently below the spending level for public assistance programs.

D. of the necessity of increased taxes to fund them.

E. None of these answers is correct.
14. (p. 548) The Social Security benefits that today's retirees receive are funded primarily by 

A. tax contributions they made in the past, which were put in a trust fund from which current payments are made.

B. payroll taxes on people who are currently working.

C. equal contributions from the national and state governments.

D. borrowed funds, which contribute to the national debt.

E. None of these answers is correct.
15. (p. 550) The term means test refers to

A. the tax on a portion of the Social Security benefits of upper-income retirees.

B. whether an applicant's income is low enough to qualify for public assistance.

C. the mandatory physical examination that Medicare and Medicaid applicants must undergo before they can receive benefits.

D. the mandatory psychological examination that Medicare and Medicaid applicants must undergo before they can receive benefits.

E. None of these answers is correct.
16. (p. 544) The child poverty rate in the United States is about 

A. 12 percent.

B. 20 percent.

C. 38 percent.

D. 6 percent.

E. 40 percent.
17. (p. 551) The Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program was unpopular in part because of

A. its public perception of welfare dependency and irresponsibility.

B. lack of public concern for child welfare.

C. public opposition to locally administered welfare programs.

D. public opposition to welfare programs for the needy.

E. None of these answers is correct.
18. (p. 554) The Food Stamps program is 

A. criticized because some believe it allows undeserving people to get aid.

B. criticized because some think it stigmatizes its users by identifying them publicly as welfare cases.

C. an in-kind benefit.

D. criticized because some think it is too costly.

E. All these answers are correct.
19. (p. 555) Which of the following statements is NOT true about Medicaid?

A. It is a public assistance program.

B. It is funded by general tax revenues.

C. It serves all Americans who cannot afford health insurance.

D. It is controversial due to its cost.

E. It is funded by both the federal government and the states.
20. (p. 558) Which of the following is true of social security and Medicare? 

A. Eligibility requirements make sure that all social security beneficiaries have an absolute economic need for the benefit.

B. Spending on Medicare and social security exceeds the total of all spending of public assistance programs.

C. Most retirees receive less in social security benefits than they contributed in payroll taxes while working.

D. Social security income is decided as follows: the lower your income while working, the larger your social security benefit upon retirement.

E. Families in the top fifth of the income population receive more in social security and Medicare benefits than the government spends in total on TANF, SSI, food stamps, and housing subsidies for the poor.
21. (p. 563) The best predictor of how well schools perform on standardized tests is the

A. salary levels of the teachers.

B. population density of the community.

C. level of local school board control over policy.

D. community's wealth.

E. percentage of private to public schools in the community.
22. (p. 559) More than 90 percent of the funding for K-12 public education comes from

A. the federal government.

B. the state governments.

C. local governments.

D. state and local governments.

E. private sources.
23. (p. 565) Which of the following statements is true concerning American public opinion on school vouchers?

A. Americans are divided in their opinions on school vouchers.

B. Americans strongly support school vouchers.

C. Americans strongly oppose school vouchers.

D. Most Americans have never heard of school vouchers.

E. Americans favor higher taxes to pay for vouchers.
24. (p. 564) In ________, Congress added a prescription drug benefit to Medicare. 

A. 1967

B. 1978

C. 1986

D. 1994

E. 2006
25. (p. 559) Which of the following is true of the federal government's role in education? 

A. The federal government provides roughly 25% of total school funding throughout the country.

B. The federal government provides roughly 70% of total school funding throughout the country.

C. The federal government's role in education was relatively small before the 1960s.

D. The 1964 Higher Education Act devolved a lot of education policy back to the states.

E. Pell grants remain the states' largest source of financial control over school policies.
26. (p. 560) ________ was called "the great leveler" when it began in the early nineteenth century.

A. Social welfare

B. Public education

C. The federal government

D. The Internal Revenue Service

E. Social security
27. (p. 549) A U.S. Bureau of Labor study revealed that about six out of seven workers who lost their job did so because

A. they were fired.

B. of either a temporary layoff or the permanent elimination of a job position.

C. they are undereducated for the work they are doing.

D. they wanted to be out of work in order to collect unemployment benefits.

E. All these answers are correct.
28. (p. 568) Welfare policy in the United States 

A. is often an issue that divides the two political parties.

B. is based entirely on the principle of need.

C. is entirely a federal issue.

D. is entirely a state issue.

E. has changed very little during the nation's history.
29. (p. 552) Which of the following is NOT a guideline within which the TANF program must operate? 

A. States have no discretion in their handling of welfare cases.

B. Eligibility for cash assistance is limited to no more than five years in a lifetime.

C. Within two years, the heads of most families on welfare have to find work or risk the loss of benefits.

D. Unmarried teenage mothers qualify for welfare benefits only if they remain in school and live with a parent or legal guardian.

E. Single mothers will lose a portion of their benefits if they refuse to cooperate in identifying the father of their children.
30. (p. 543) Which of the following is a true statement about the visibility of poverty in American society today?

A. Media coverage often focuses on the plight of the poor in America.

B. In polls each year, Americans place the problem of poverty as the nation's top problem.

C. Poverty is less visible in the suburbs than in inner cities or rural areas.

D. Poverty has been virtually eliminated in the United States.

E. Poverty is most apparent in the case of elderly Americans.
31. (p. 552) The passage of TANF has resulted in which of the following? 

A. the reduction of the child poverty rate

B. a greater awareness of poverty in American society

C. a reduction in single parent households

D. a dramatic reduction in the size of the welfare rolls

E. a greater stigma associated with EITC
32. (p. 552) ________ orchestrated the Great Society programs of the 1960s. 

A. Franklin Roosevelt

B. John Kennedy

C. Dwight Eisenhower

D. Richard Nixon

E. Lyndon Johnson
33. (p. 568) Which of the following is true regarding income patterns in America? 

A. The income of the average American family exceeds $100,000.

B. The top fifth of Americans in terms of income get nearly 90 percent of the total income in the nation.

C. The bottom fifth of Americans get slightly less than a twentieth of total national income.

D. The United States has the lowest amount of income inequality of any industrialized democracy.

E. None of these answers is correct.
34. (p. 548) The major reason social security is likely to be the topic of reform is because 

A. many Americans will leave the system in favor of private retirement plans.

B. Republicans wish to eliminate the system entirely, while Democrats wish to save it.

C. the number of workers may not bring in enough money to cover the benefits of a growing number of retirees.

D. it is a very unpopular program.

E. All these answers are correct.
35. (p. 545) Medicare was enacted into law during the administration of 

A. Harry S. Truman.

B. John F. Kennedy.

C. Bill Clinton.

D. Richard Nixon.

E. None of these answers is correct.
36. (p. 565) ________ persuaded Congress to enact the No Child Left Behind Act. 

A. President Ronald Reagan

B. President Bill Clinton

C. President George W. Bush

D. Vice President Al Gore

E. Vice President Dan Quayle
37. (p. 560) The Supreme Court has ruled that 

A. the federal government must provide at least half the cost of educating each child through public education systems.

B. the federal government is responsible for ensuring that each state provides an adequate education for each child.

C. states have no official responsibilities in the field of education.

D. states are obliged to give all children an education that is "equal" across communities.

E. states are obliged to give all children an "adequate" education.
38. (p. 552-553) All of the following are true of the Head Start program EXCEPT that it 

A. began as part of Lyndon Johnson's Great Society program in the 1960s.

B. has helped disadvantaged children develop their learning skills.

C. has been weakened by children's unsupportive environments at home.

D. is fully funded at the present time.

E. is designed to assist preschool children.
39. (p. 553-554) The poverty line in 2009 was set at roughly ________ for an urban family of four. 

A. $9,500

B. $22,000

C. $28,000

D. $40,000

E. $52,000
40. (p. 550) Of the following, which is likely the LEAST criticized public assistance program?

A. Supplemental Security Income

B. Aid to Families with Dependent Children

C. Food Stamps

D. Medicaid

E. housing subsidies
41. (p. 549) The unemployment insurance program is 

A. run jointly by federal and state governments.

B. funded by payroll taxes collected by the states.

C. funded by payroll taxes paid by employees and employers, a condition set uniformly across states.

D. managed entirely by the federal government.

E. managed by local governments and private charities.
42. (p. 554) ________ is an example of an in-kind benefit. 

A. The Food Stamps program

B. Social security

C. Unemployment insurance

D. Supplemental Security Income

E. None of these answers is correct.
43. (p. 564) Charter schools 

A. are publicly funded and have no more freedom in choosing students than do public schools, though they have greater freedom in determining curricula.

B. are privately funded and have total freedom in determining curricula.

C. are publicly funded but have more freedom in determining curricula than public schools.

D. are promoted primarily by Democrats as a strong, publicly-funded method of improving education.

E. have been opposed by President Obama, through executive orders to drain their funding.
44. (p. 564) In contrast with Medicare, the Medicaid program is

A. a public assistance program.

B. funded totally by the states.

C. funded by payroll taxes.

D. very popular with the general public.

E. None of these answers is correct.
45. (p. 565) The No Child Left Behind Act 

A. was championed primarily by president Bill Clinton.

B. offers, but does not require, the chance for schools to receive additional funding if they submit to nationally standardized testing in reading, math, and science.

C. ties federal funding to national test results in reading, math, and science.

D. offers increased federal funding to schools that show poor testing performance after three years.

E. cuts school funding for those schools that show no improvement in test scores after one year.
46. (p. 550) A recent poll determined that most Americans believe which of the following is the second costliest federal program?

A. education

B. public assistance programs

C. environmental protection

D. farm subsidies

E. social insurance programs
47. (p. 567) To what was political scientist Robert Lane referring when using the term "market justice"? 

A. Americans prefer that society's material benefits be allocated through the economic marketplace rather than through government policies.

B. Government should not use fiscal policy to attempt to flatten the ups and downs of a market economy.

C. Americans should increase the size of the federal welfare state in order to mitigate the harmful influences of the market.

D. The market tends to eliminate weak businesses and reward strong ones.

E. The strength of the market economy of the United States is precisely what provides the welfare state with the revenue it needs to help the most underprivileged citizens.
48. (p. 547) What are the two broad groups that individual-benefit programs fall into? 

A. public assistance and in-kind assistance

B. equity and efficiency

C. positive and negative

D. social insurance and public assistance

E. subsidized and social insurance
49. (p. 545) The idea of negative government holds that 

A. government governs best by staying out of people's lives.

B. government intervention is necessary in order to enhance personal liberty and security when individuals are buffeted by economic and social forces beyond their control.

C. government intervention into the economy should be limited to ensuring the equity of financial transactions between individuals.

D. the government is ultimately a destructive force in people's lives because it protects business interests over individual citizens' interests.

E. citizens in society possess a negative amount of liberty and economic freedom until a government intervenes to ensure the equity and efficiency of transactions.