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43 Cards in this Set

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Autocracy
controlled by one person, political authority lies in a single individual (monarch or dictator) low citizen inclusiveness
Democracy
Power of the people based on popular sovereignty, highest citizen inclusiveness
Elite Democracy
limits citizens role to choosing competing leaders
Pluralist democracy
membership in groups is key to political power
Participatory/direct democracy
citizens directly control al aspects of life
Karl Marx
Wrote the Communist Manifesto
Socialism
Complete government ownership (substantive guarantees)
CHINA
Social Democracy
Mostly private ownership but extensive government control (substantive and procedural guarantees)
SWEDEN
Regulated Capitalism
Private ownership and some government control (procedural guarantees)

UNITED STATES
Laissez- Faire Capitalism
Private ownership and no government control
Liberalism
Believes in the importance of individual freedom Rejection of the older assumptions about government
Arose from the Age of Enlightenment
Conservatives
Advocates institutions and traditional practices that have developed organically
Emphasizes stability and continuity
Began as a reaction to the French Revolution
Communitarian
Emphasizes the interests of the community as a whole
Citizens have a right to education, housing, health care, etc.
Libertarian
Maximizing individual liberty
Minimal role for the state
Anti-Taxation
Thomas Hobbes
Maintain Order

Wrote Leviathan
Thomas Jefferson
Wrote original draft of Declaration of Independence

Original draft composed by Thomas Jefferson announcing that the thirteen colonies were now independent states; written over a year after the actual outbreak of war
Thomas Paine
Common Sense
Constitution
Amended 27 times
1777 created
Stamp Act
1765
Aftermath of the French and Indian War
What were the grievances of the colonists after the French and Indian War?
Economic, particularly with regard to taxation
A loss of popular sovereignty (the ultimate authority belongs to the people)
Violence against the colonists
Who wrote the Federalist Papers
John Jay, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton
American Citizenship
Fundamental role of government is to determine who is, and who is not a citizen, therefore guaranteeing the rights of citizenship; you are an American citizen if you are born in the US, whether or not your parents are citizens, and born to American parents abroad
• Immigrants: citizens or subjects of one country who move to another country to live or work
• Naturalization: legal process of acquiring citizenship for someone who has not acquired it by birth
• Little formal policy emerged pertaining to immigration in the early development of the US and immigrants were welcomed to aid in economic development
• Early concerns of immigrants revolved around religious morals and national loyalty
• Madison preferred a republic; republic: a government in which decisions are made through representatives of the people; Madison did not trust average Americans to act beyond their own interests; Madison feared “pure democracy” because it could further lead to “factions”; faction: a small and organized group within a larger political group
• Political culture: the broad patterns of ideas, beliefs, and values about citizens and government held by the citizens of a country
• Values: central ideas, principles or standards that most people agree to be important
Adam Smith
developer of capitalist economic theory
Believed in Laissez-Faire government ( laissez-faire: belief that the government should interfere as little as possible in economic affairs)
Fusion of powers
combining or blending branches of government
Parliamentary system
executive is a member of the legislature, and chosen by other legislators
George Washington
Charismatic Authority

Father of our country
Problems with the articles
Congress lacked the ability to draft or tax for military needs
Congress could not regulate commerce between states
The U.S. government had to rely on voluntary cooperation between states
Bicameral Legislature
a legislature with two chambers: house (based on population), and senate (2 from each state)
Branches of Government
Legislative (congress being the house of representatives and the senate),
Executive (president and vice president)
Judicial (the supreme court)
Enlightenment thinkers
Enlightenments theorists challenged the Divine Right of Kings; Divine Right of Kings: principle that early rulers received their authority from God
Thomas Hobbes & John Locke – founders of Social Contract Theory
Thomas Hobbes wrote “The Leviathan”
John Locke wrote “Two Treatises of Government”, the “Letters Concerning Toleration”, “The Reasonableness of Christianity and Some Thoughts Concerning Education”
•Social Contract Theory: the notion that society is based on an agreement between the government and the governed; the people give up some rights in order to be able to live without fear
Social Contract Theory
the notion that society is based on an agreement between the government and the governed; the people give up some rights in order to be able to live without fear
The Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation
•The first US Constitution (1777) creating an association of states with a weak central government
•Formally ratified in 1781 and replaced in 1789
•Reflected a fear of large national power
•Overall failure; confederation: a government in which independent states unite for some common purpose, but still maintain their sovereignty
•Congress lacked the ability to draft tax for military needs
•Congress could not regulate commerce between states
•US had to rely on voluntary cooperation between states
The U.S Constitution
•The supreme law of the United States; first three articles of Constitution establish the three branches of government (executive, legislative, judicial); amended 27 times; first ten amendments are known as the Bill of Rights written by James Madison
•Described in Article 5 of the Constitution
•Amendments proposed by two-thirds of both houses of Congress or by National Convention
•Ratification by three-fourths of the states
Federalism
•The colonies still wanted to be tied to one another, but acquire their own sovereignty (national and state government working with one another)
American Federalism
•Enumerated powers: congressional powers specifically named in Article 1, Section 8 of the constitution
•Necessary and Proper Clause – constitutional authority for Congress to make any law required to carry out its power
Contemporary Federalism
•Federalism is a continually renegotiated compromise
•Devolution – the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states
The Federalist Papers
•Written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay
•Served as an influential explanation and defense for the US constitution
James Madison
•Madison preferred a republic; republic: a government in which decisions are made through representatives of the people; Madison did not trust average Americans to act beyond their own interests; Madison feared “pure democracy” because it could further lead to “factions”; faction: a small and organized group within a larger political group
Oligarchy
– government of a few; small group of landowners, military officers, or wealthy merchants control most of the governing decisions, low citizen inclusiveness
Totalitarianism
system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits on its power and seeks to absorb or eliminate all other forms of authority
theocracy
Divine or religious authority; individuals are subjects of their state government; (subject – individuals who are obliged to submit a government authority against which they have no rights)
Non-authoritarian
Anarchy: the absence of government and laws

Democracy: government that vests power in the people; based on popular sovereignty
Popular sovereignty: the concept that the citizens are the ultimate source of political power




Democratic systems: people are citizens
Citizens: members of a political community having both rights and responsibilities, which include obeying laws, paying taxes, owning businesses, participating in government
Origins of American Democracy
Ancient Greek experience: Athenian democracy

Politics in the Middle Ages
The divine right of kings: the principle that earthly rulers receive their authority from God

Enlightenment theories discredited the divine right of kings