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77 Cards in this Set

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The former Soviet Communist Party's system of controlling all important administrative appointments, thereby ensuring the support and loyalty of those who managed day-to-day affairs. (on a list)


Term given to Mikhail Gorbachev's various attempts to restructure the Soviet economy while not completely sacrificing its socialist character. (tried to break tie between society and parties)


"openness"; refers to Gorbachev's curtailment of censorship and encouragement of political discussion and dissent within the former Soviet Union. (started speaking about the gov)


The policy of seeking to dominate the economic or political affairs of underdeveloped areas or weaker countries.


A policy of territorial expansion, often by means of military conquest.

political development

A government's ability to exert power effectively, to provide for public order and services, and to withstand eventual changes in leadership.


The creation of political institutions capable of exercising authority and allocating resources effectively within a nation.

ascriptive societies

An individual's status and position in society are ascribed on the basis of religion, gender, age, or some other attribute.

terms of trade

In international economies, the valuation of the products that countries buy on the world market relative to the valuation of the products they sell.

Green Revolution

A dramatic rise in agricultural output, resulting from modern irrigation systems and synthetic fertilizers, characteristic of modern India, Mexico, Taiwan, and the Philippines.

political culture

The moral values, beliefs, and myths by which people live and for which they are willing to die.

political socialization

The process by which members of a community are taught the basic values of their society and are thus prepared for the duties of citizenship.

gender gap

Differences in voting between men and women in the US; most apparent in issues of appropriateness of governmental force.

random sampling

A polling method that involves canvassing people at random from the population.

stratified sampling

A manner of polling in which participants are chosen on the basis of age, income, socioeconomic background, and the like, so that the sample mirrors the larger population.

tracking poll

Repeated sampling of voters to assess shifts in attitudes or behavior over time.


The political situation in which no single party has a majority and the largest party allies itself loosely with other, smaller parties to control a majority of the legislative seats.


A vote by an entire community on some specific issue of public policy.


A vote through which citizens may directly repeal a law.

interest group

An association of individuals that attempts to influence policy and legislation in a confined area of special interest, often through lobbying, campaign contributions, and bloc voting.


An interest group that operates in D.C., or in a state capital, and attempts to influence legislators, decision makers, and regulators to bend laws, policies, and rules in ways that benefit its membership or constituency.


Someone who uses his or her leadership skills to gain public office through appeals to popular fears and prejudices and then abuses that power for personal gain.

federal budget deficit

In the U.S. the difference between federal revenues and federal expenditures in a given year.

National debt

The cumulative sum of budget deficits over many years.

affrimative action

Giving preferential treatment to a socially or economically disadvantaged group in compensation for opportunities denied by past discrimination.

due process of law

A guarantee of fair legal procedure.

exclusionary rule

The rule that evidence obtained in violation of constitutional guidelines cannot be used in court against the accused.
An agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate.
The executive committee for a number of (usually communist) political parties.
General Secretary
Is staffed by the chief officer (sometimes also the leader) of communist parties, church groups, etc.
An abrupt or violent removal of a group of people from an organization or place.
democratic centralism
The name given to the deontological principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party.
party vs vanguard
A strategy whereby the most class-conscious and politically advanced sections of the proletariat or working class, described as the revolutionary vanguard, form organizations in order to draw larger sections of the working class towards revolutionary politics and serve as manifestations of proletarian political power against its class enemies.
Article 6
Establishes the laws and treaties of the United States made in accordance with it as the supreme law of the land, forbids a religious test as a requirement for holding a governmental position and holds the United States under the Constitution responsible for debts incurred by the United States under the Articles of Confederation.
The reforms consisted of changing or removing key institutions that helped Stalin hold power.
socialist legalism
A current in administrative philosophy that culminated in an emphasis of rule by law.
central Planning
The allocation of resources is determined by a comprehensive plan of production which specifies output requirements.
It is the lower house of the Federal Assembly, Russia's national legislature.
Fried Snowballs
Transition from communism to market economy, privatized public land. They say trying to reform communism slowly is like trying to..
The goal of this policy was to consolidate individual land and labour into collective farms: mainly kolkhozy and sovkhozy.
The process of forming a common identity based on the notion of belonging to a political community separate and distinct from all others.
Public good
The shared beliefs of a political community as to what goals government ought to attain.
A political philosophy that upholds liberty as its principal objective. They seek to maximize autonomy and freedom of choice, emphasizing political freedom, voluntary association and the primacy of individual judgement.
A governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.
Democratic Socialism
A political ideology advocating a democratic political system alongside a socialist economic system.
Adam Smith
He laid the foundations of classical free market economic theory.
Exceptional leader
Display an overriding concern for the public good, superior leadership skills, and keen practical wisdom in times of crisis.
The art of leading in difficult times, promoting the common good, and protecting vital national interests while avoiding unnecessary conflict.
Anwar Sadat
In his eleven years as president, he changed Egypt's trajectory, departing from many of the political, and economic tenets of Nasserism, re-instituting a multi-party system, and launching the Infitah economic policy.
Joseph McCarthy
An American politician who was noted for making claims that there were large numbers of Communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers inside the United States federal government and elsewhere.
Horse Race Aspect
Political journalism of elections that resembles coverage of horse races because of the focus on polling data, public perception instead of candidate policy, and almost exclusive reporting on candidate differences rather than similarities.
Unconventional Participation
A relatively uncommon behavior that challenges or defies government channels or the dominant culture.
Single member Single district
An electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature.
Passive Participation
A silent agreement and consent to perform an act that is often illegal.
Elitist theory of Democracy
A theory of the state which seeks to describe and explain the power relationships in contemporary society.
A political action committee is a type of organization that pools campaign contributions from members and donates those funds to campaign for or against candidates, ballot initiatives, or legislation.
Soft money
Money donated to political parties in a way that leaves the contribution unregulated.
Cross cutting Cleavages

Have some commonalities between each other and some disagreements-farmers in WI example.

The recognition and affirmation of diversity within a political body, which permits the peaceful coexistence of different interests, convictions and lifestyles.
Favored economic tri-partism which involved strong labour unions, employers' unions, and governments that cooperated as "social partners" to negotiate and manage a national economy.
The socio-political organization of a society by major interest groups, or corporate groups.
John Locke
The social contract or political contract is a theory or model that typically addresses the questions of the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual.
Dred Scott
Finding that neither he nor any other person of African ancestry could claim citizenship in the United States, and therefore Scott could not bring suit in federal court under diversity of citizenship rules.
Plessy vs Ferguson
Separate but equal.
Brown vs Board of Education
The Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Bakke vs Ca Board of Regents
It upheld affirmative action, allowing race to be one of several factors in college admission policy. However, the court ruled that specific quotas, such as the 16 out of 100 seats set aside for minority students by the University of California, Davis School of Medicine, were impermissible.
Hopwood vs State of Texas
The first successful legal challenge to a university's affirmative action policy in student admissions since Regents of the University of California v. Bakke. Four white plaintiffs who had been rejected from University of Texas challenged the institution's admissions policy on equal protection grounds and prevailed.
Right to Privacy
A human right and an element of various legal traditions which may restrain both government and private party action that threatens the privacy of individuals.
Roe vs Wade
A right to privacy under the due process clause of the 14th Amendment extended to a woman's decision to have an abortion, but that this right must be balanced against the state's two legitimate interests in regulating abortions: protecting prenatal life and protecting women's health.
Good Faith Exception
Allows evidence collected in violation of privacy rights as interpreted from the Fourth Amendment to be admitted at trial if police officers acting in good faith.
Flat Tax
A tax system with a constant marginal rate, usually applied to individual or corporate income.
Means testing
A determination of whether an individual or family is eligible for government assistance, based upon whether the individual or family possesses the means to do without that help.
Judicial Discretion and Mandatory Minimum Sentences
A court decision setting where judicial discretion is limited by law.
Social Security Cap
You pay Social Security taxes each year up to a maximum amount that is set by law.
Race norming
The process of statistically adjusting the scores of minority job applicants on job-qualification tests by rating each test-taker's score against the results of the others in their racial or ethnic group.
triple transition
In Russia political, economic, and social changes- we use our model- tough to to all at once.
elitists vs pluralists
Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite.

Pluralism is the affirmation and acceptance of diversity.