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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Name 3 Basic Attributes of Modernity

Individualism:People will act in their own self-interest

Secular humanism: Separation of church & state

Predominance of economics: Distribution of goods & services & how that works/happens

Define Scarcity & Socialization

Scarcity: People value most, with which they don't have


Primacy: What is learned first, is learned best

Intermediate: Basic identity formed during teenage/young adult years

Recency: Identity is reactive to current context, always changing

Name the responses of traditional ideologies & Alternative responses

Nationalism: Takes focus away from your community & shifts blame to outside community

Post Materialism: Lead to Civil Rights Movement & Rise of counterculture since people grew up well-off.

Name some of the characteristics of Materialism

-People after war grew up iwell off so focused on other things then survival such as political freedom & expression

-Valued economic growth over other things e.g.) Controlling inflation

-Valued law & order for physical security e.g.) Large military, stiff penalties to keep people from committing crimes

Name some characteristics of Post-Materialism

- Promoted social justice, equality of rights & freedoms

- People looked to get more involved with government

- Environmental protection as priority over economic growth

Define High Politics & Low Politics

High Politics: Military power, war & state craft

Low Politics: Everything else (human rights, the economy, society)

Define Discourse

Power & knowledge are inseparably tied up together

Define Hegemony

Process by which dominant culture maintains its power. Promotes ideals of that group through education, advertising, publication, etc.

Define Disciplinary Power

State defines normal, Painting opposition as being abnormal e.g.) Homosexuality as a mental illness

Define Diving practices

Stigmatization: Brand someone as a disgrace

Define Deconstructionism

Universal truths have been constructed by someone at some time & place. Idea that the world is constantly recreated in our discourse through our words, language, ideas etc.

Define Dominant Paradigm

The values or system of thought, in a society that are most standard & widely held


Way that institutions have been set up. They have been normalized

1st Wave Women's movement

Theory: Women as different; feminine & maternal, caregivers. Women should bring sense of caring to public realm

Focus: Getting women to vote, Public health, Prohibition, Educational/occupational equality

2nd Wave Women's movement

Theory: Women are the same; equal in all ways

Focus: Employment equity & unpaid work, political representation, legalization of birth control pill/abortion, feminization of Poverty

3rd Wave Women's movement

Theory: Intersectionality of oppression & privilege

Focus: Recognition of oppression within the women's movement

Liberal Feminism

Equal opportunities for women & men

Principle: Oppression originates in unequal treatment

Focus: Basic equality rights for women in education & workplace

Socialist Feminism

Principle: Oppression originates in the interaction of patriarchy & capitalism. Capitalism requires sexual division of unpaid labour

Focus: Gaining influence/control of the agents of socialization. to tear down capitalism

Radical Feminism

Accept basic premise of liberal feminism

Principle: Oppression originates the sex/gender system: results in biological rules

Focus: Re=examination of biological & socio-cultural assumptions about sex & gender

Postmodern Feminism

Princple: Oppression originates in language, which is the main tool of patriarchy

Focus: Use of language to disrupt the dominant view of reality. Illustrate diversity of women & feminism

Anti Feminism

Rejects core of feminist thoughts

Principle: Biology is determined: Gender is same as sex, Gender codes are natural

Focus: Hetero sexual family is cornerstone of society

Conservation/Reform Environmentalism

View: source of resources

Focus: Management of resrouce extraction, flood control, wildlife management

e.g.) Carbon Tax or Cap & Trade system

Human Welfare Ecology/Social Political Ecology

View: Essential to human health & happiness

Focus: Air & Water quality, Climate change, overpopulation, waste disposal, overuse of pesticides & herbicides

Deep Ecology

View: Non human life is equally as valuable as human life, therefor it should have equal rights

Focus: Decrease in human consumption &/or populations, Fundamental change in ecnomic, technological, & ideological structures. e.g.) local food movement for high quality of lives for animals


- Rejection of secular humanism

- Self-separation


Regulation of public & private


2 things included in Democratic Process

Political Equality

Majority rule

3 things included in Democratic Substance

-Minority protection

Political freedoms

Popular Participation

What are the 4 principles of Liberal Democracy

1. Political equality

2. Majority Rule

3. Political freedoms

4. Popular Participation

Political Equality

Equality of right

Equality of Opporutnity

Equality of outcome

Majority Rule

Simple Majority vs Qualified majority

Tyranny of the majority

Define Rule of Law

Government action cannot be taken outside of the law

Maintenance of law & order

Due Process


Government is subject to law

Recognized procedures

Political Freedoms

Protection of rights & interests

Freedom of: speech, information, press, assembly, religion, movement, vocation, etc.

Popular Participation

Delegate representation: delegate follows wishes of people they're representing

Trustee: Exercises own judgement about what's best

Define 4 terms of deliberative democracy





Everyone votes on new policy

Basically referendum, not binding

Basically a petition

Removing someone from ofice after they've been elected

Benefits of Democracy





Protection of minorities

Problems with liberal Democracy


Elite Rule



Best Information

Public vs. Private Interests

3 levels of democratic participation




Shows up to vote

Follows political issues & policies, discusses politics with friends

Volunteer, even run for office

Name 3 characteristics of Political Protests

Atypical actors

Occurs outside the system

Aimed at government, elites, opponents

Define Social Movements

Informal networks

Collective identity/values

Political & cultural action

Aimed at state & society

Name some aims of old social movements

Class, redistribution of income, women's rights

Name some aims of post-materialist aims

Identity, discourse e.g. Anti-globalization

Define Regime violence, Civic Violence & unintended violence

Perpetrated by state on own cities

Used by organization to advance its aims

Rally that's goal is not for violence, but individual actor causes violence

Name characteristics of Guerilla Warfare



Physical familiarity

Social/cultural familiarity

Long term

Name some Counter-Insurgency strategies

Repress: Controlling/minimizing military impact insurgents

Reform: Instill political legitimacy





Civillian population

Suicide terrorism

State-sponsored terrorism

State-imposed terror

Define Monarchy






One rules, lawfully

One rules, lawlessly

Few rule, Lawfully

Few rule, lawlessly

Many rule, lawfully

Many rule, lawlessly

4 Characteristics of modern government

Ubiquitous: They are everywhere

Multiple levels


Varied: Both ideologically & structurally

What are the three Democratic Systems?

Parliamentary, Presidential, semi-presidential systems

what are the 2 major characteristics of Parliamentary system

Fusion of powers: same people hold office in executive & legislative branch

Responsible government: government is responsible to maintain confidence of parliament

2 Major characteristics of Presidential System

Separation of power: Clear division between executive, legislative & judicial branch

Don't have responsible government: each branch holds each other accountable

2 characteristics of semi-presidential system

Responsible Government

Separation of Powers

Name the 3 Democratic Structures

Unitary Structure

Federal Structure

Confederate Structure

Define Unitary Structure

Places power in one central level of government. That level of gov't gives some power to lower levels

Define Federal Structure

No level of gov't is subject to the power of another level of gov't e.g.) Canada has municipal, provincial & federal government

Define Confederate Structure

Sovereignty lies with lower levels of gov't, they choose to surrender some sovereignty of it to a central gov't . e.g.) EU

Define Authoritarian government

Reject liberal democracy as inefficient

Limited political pluralism

Lack of Rule of Law

Limited Political rights & freedoms

Define Totalitarian government

Regulates & controls nearly every aspect of its society, both the public & private

Single party state with one charismatic leader. Complete rejection of pluralism

Communication monopoly

Police state to maintain transformation

State-controlled economy

Define Hybrid States

Transitions to either authoritarian or authoritarian. Has elements of both

What are some Impediments to Transition

Ethnic & national violence

Religious fundamentalism


Strong military


5 Global Challenge to democracy


Former Soviet States

Fundamentalism (middle East)

Sub-Saharan Africa

Disengagement (lower voter turnout)