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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Political socialization
the process of learning the underlying beliefs and values on which the political system is based
Public opinion
citizens attitude about political issues, leaders, institutions, and events
Push polls
a polling technique in which the questions are formed in order to shape the respondent’s opinion
Random sampling
polls in which respondents are chosen mathematically at random with every effort made to avoid bias in the construction of the sample
Selection bias
polling error in which sample is not representative of the population being studied so that some opinions are over or underrepresented
Issue advocacy
independent spending by individuals or interest groups that supports a campaign issue but is not directly tied to a particular candidate
Soft money
Virtually unregulated money funneled through political parties for party building purposes
Hard money
Funds that can be used for direct electioneering, but are limited and regulated by the federal election commission.
Electoral college
Presidential electors from each state who meet in their respective state capitals after the popular election to cast ballots for president and vice president.
Proportional representation
a multiple member district system that allows each political party representation in proportion to its percentage of the vote
Single member district plurality
the single winner is the person with the most votes; there is no requirement that the winner gain an absolute majority of votes.
Primary election
is an election in which voters in a jurisdiction select candidates for a subsequent election.
General elections
an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election; the main event
Ticket splitting
The act of voting for candidates of different political parties in the same election.
When redistricting is viewed as an unfair process designed to give an unfair advantage to a particular group, candidate or party
a claim by a victorious candidate that the electorate has given him or her special authority to carry out promises made during the campaign.
The modern republican party emerged in the 1850s as an anti-slavery party out of the remnants of the Whig party.
a political view that is not associated with a party, may have mixed views about different topics, and or their own personal views different then the republican or democratic
Electoral realignment
When a new party supplants the ruling party, becoming in turn the dominant political force.
Party in the electorate
Refers to voters attachments to political parties; degree to which voters are attached to the party.
Party as organization
refers to the formal party organizations and processes and to those aspects of political parties that assist and direct candidates seeking to win office in elections.
Party in government
refers to the ability of parties to structure and control the government. It tends to be weak in the US because the control of gov can be between the two parties.
Interest groups
an organized group of individuals or organizations that makes policy related appeals to government.
Holds that political power in society does not lie with the electorate, nor with a small concentrated elite, but is distributed between a wide number of groups.
Free rider problem
Enjoying the benefits of some good or action while letting others bear the cost.
Prisoners Dilemma
a fundamental problem that shows how people might not cooperate even if it is in both their best interests to do so.
Selective benefits
Benefits that do not go to everyone but rather are distributed selectively, to those who contribute to the group enterprise.
Agenda setting
the process by which it is determined which issues are taken up by political actors and institutions.
a process of preparing the public to take a particular view of an event or political actor.
the power of the media to influence how events and issues are interpreted.
Talking points
a neologism for an idea which may or may not be factual, usually compiled in a short list with summaries of a speaker's agenda for public or private engagements.
Media consolidation
Refers to the view that the majority of major media outlets are controlled and owned by a small number of conglomerates and corporations.
Hypodermic model
all politics is directly influenced in key ways by mass media.
Minimal effects model
Media merely reflects society but does not shape it
Why are third parties relatively unimportant in American politics
1) US has a two party system; never have had a member of Congress or President of another party
2) Electoral College makes it difficult for third parties because of the plurality system
3) Dem&Repub enjoy media exposure, financial backing and large following
4) Repub&Dem adopt third parties main ideas, making them useless
5) Voters won't recognize
Describe how the Constitution incorporates the principles of separation of powers and checks and balances. In addition, give specific examples of clashes between different policymakers on these questions. (Use events we have studied over the course of the semester).
Fed powers in Art. I, II, III
Exec enforces
Leg writes law
Judiciary interprets the law
Checks and balances:
ii. Executive has the power to veto laws made by Congress and appoints Supreme Court judges, can refuse to enforce laws they deem unconstitutional, can grant pardons for crimes.
iii. Legislative: “Power of the purse”, can originate and try cases if impeachment, and can ratify treaties.
iv. Judicial: Can declare laws unconstitutional and refuse to enforce them; judicial review
i. Marbury v. Madison: Established the concept of judicial review, and allowed the judiciary to nullify actions of another branch of government. Nullified Judiciary Act of 1789
ii. Brown v. Board – Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson case; separate but equal clause of the Jim Crow laws was overturned and declared unconstitutional
iii. Iraq War? – President simply deployed troops without officially declaring war