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45 Cards in this Set

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Bill of Rights

An act of parliament passed in 1960 that outlined the basic civil liberties of Canadians but whose defects caused judicial confusion and limited the Bill's effectiveness

Notwithstanding Clause

Section 33 of the Charter which allows federal or provincial governments to pass laws that violate certain sections of the Charter

Reasonable limits clause

Section 1 of the Charter which allows the courts to find that even though a law violates a Charter right, it is a reasonable limit on such and is therefore allowed to stand.

Parliamentary Standing Committees

25 standing committees are the most important parliamentary committees. Usually chaired by government MP's, 7-11 members, party representation being proportionate to that of the H.O.C. They include specialist committees, corresponding roughly in concern to government departments, and other committees dealing with matters such as public accounts, miscellaneous estimates and private bills, procedures and organization, privileges and elections. In Parliament there are also joint standing committees of the House and SENATE. Ministers are not usually standing-committee members, nor, since 1985, are parliamentary secretaries

References Cases

Cases referred to the courts by provincial or federal cabinets in order to obtain a ruling on their constitutionality


The upper house of Canada's Parliament. It's 105 members are appointed and hold their seats until age 75. Purpose is to consider and revise legislation, investigate national issues, and most crucially according to the constitution - give the regions of Canada and equal voice in Parliament.

Party Discipline

The convention that all MP's within any party vote together on every occasion, as pre-determined in the party caucus meeting, ordered by the PM in the case of the government party and enforced by the party whip.

Parliamentary Reform

Current cycle responds to long-standing pressures of change, some of which have been heightened by recent events. (1968-2007)

1982 - Strengthened policy role for the standing committees

Private Member's Bill

A public bill introduced in the H.O.C or Senate by a member who is not in the cabinet

Free Vote

A vote in the H.O.C (or Senate) in which members are not required to abide by the party line.


Is a method of selecting party leaders by direct vote of the members of a political party

Conservative Party

This party was the founding political party of Canada, governing for the first 29 years after confederation. Since, they have had periods in power and long periods in opposition. Party has been most successful when it was able to assemble National Coalition of anglophone conservatives from the West and Ontario, and Nationalists from Quebec

Progressive Conservative Party (PC)

Encouraged by Meighn, Manitoba Premier John Bracken, a progressive party member with no experience, sought and won 1942 conservative leadership. Organizations name was changed and it attempted to shift left, however, CCF and Liberals were also shifting left.

Liberal Party

This party has dominated federal politics for much of Canada's history, using the formula for success of straddling the political centre. Developed under the leadership of Sir. Wilfred Laurier - they have formed numerous governments and provided Canada with 10 PM's - but the party has also experienced defeat and internal divisions. Recently, Oct, 2015 - party rose from 3rd to 1st place in H.O.C winning majority government under leader Justin Trudeau.

Reform Party

This party platform included traditional prairie populist reform panaceas such as free trade and direct democracy (referendums, initiatives, and recall) and some contemporary proposals such as Triple-E Senate (equal, elected and effective)

Canadian Alliance Party

This party was created from the remaining of the former reform party of Canada at a convention in Ottawa in January 2000 in an attempt to merge conservative opposition to the Liberal party

Red Torries

Language of " " became popular in the mid 60's when Grant Horowitz suggest that George Craft was Red Tory. Publication and immediate success of Grant's work: Lament for a nation - the defeat of Canadian Nationalism - 1965. made it abundantly clear that there were historical forms of conservatism in Canada that could not be equated with US republicanism. "____ touch" in traditional Canadian politics is towards commonwealth and socialism.

Welfare Liberalism

A multi-billion dollar system of government programs - many introduced in 1960's that transfer money and services to Canadians to deal with an array of needs including: Poverty, homelessness, unemployment, immigration, aging, illness, workplace injury, disability, needs of children, women, gay, lesbian and transgendered people.
Major programs include Social Assistance, Canada Child-Tax benefit, Old Age security and guaranteed income supplement, Employment Insurance, Canada and Quebec Pension plan, worker's compensation, public education, medicare, social housing and social services. Programs funded and delivered by federal, provincial and municipal governments.

Judicialization of politics

Ever-accelerating reliance on courts and judicial means for addressing core moral predicaments - encompass matters that include electoral outcomes as well as collective identity issues - all of which have been framed as constitutional issues

Judicial independence

The constitutional principle that the courts should function independently of the rest of the government apparatus (politicians and bureaucrats) with implications for security of tenure and remuneration.

Canadian Judicial Council

An agency composed of the federal and provincial chief justices that disciplines federally appointed judges and otherwise provides leadership and coordination among federal and provincial judicial systems

Supreme Court of Canada

Has been the highest court for all legal issues of federal and provincial jurisdiction since 1949 when appeals to the JCPC of the UK were abolished. In 1875, parliaments passed a statute of the constitution act, 1870, establishing a general court of appeal for Canada and the Federal court of Canada. Creation of SCC has caused sharp debate among fathers of confederation

Section 96 courts

Typically characterized as the "anchor" of the justice system around which courts must conform - authorize Federal government to appoint judges for superior, district, and county courts in each province.

Parliamentary Supremacy

The principle that no other organ of government can overrule parliament and its laws - modified to some extent in 1982 with an extended power of judicial review incorporated in the Charter

Brian Mulroney

PM of Canada 1984-1993. PC party. Brought in landmark free-trade agreement with US. Efforts to persuade Quebec to sign constitution - despite efforts, Meech and Charlottetown Accords failed

Pierre Trudeau

PM of Canada from 1968-79, and 1980-84. Canada's best-known politician. Instrumental in negotiating Canada's constitutional independence from British Parliament and establishing a new Canadian Constitution (Charter) Also brought in official languages act in 1969.

Representation by Population

Demanded by citizens of Canada west to replace equal representation of the 2 Canada's in Pprovince of Canada after 1850, when Canada west gained a growing population lead over the largely French-speaking eastern section urged by George Brown from 1853 onwards - led to sectional breakdown by 1864 - ultimate remedy was Fed. government within confederation

Electoral redistribution

Describes both the allocation of seats in the H.O.C to provinces and the procedure for drawing specific constituency boundaries within provinces. Occurring every 10 years.

First past the post electoral system

The kidn of electoral system used in Canada in which the candidate with the most votes wins, regardless of if it is over 50% synonymous with single-member system

Preston Manning

Son of Alberta Premier - Ernest Manning - unsuccessful social credit candidate in 1965 federal election.

Precursor to Reform Party

Stephen Harper

Longest serving Conservative PM since John MacDonald - Helped found Reform Party, leader of Canadian Alliance party - Harper transformed Canada's political landscape by uniting divided rigth into conservative party. Led CPC to 3 consecutive wins


An attempt to design constituency boundaries in the interests of the day in order to maximize the number of that party's seats and minimze the seats won by the opposition

Brokerage politics

A kind of party system in which political parties try to appeal to many different interests and 'broker' compromises among them, rather than having any distinct ideology

Class-based politics

Political parties that appeal to a single, socio-economic class or ideology; when all parties do so, they constitute a class-based party system

Cooperative commonwealth federation

This was founded in Calgary in 1932 as a political coalition of progressive, socialist and labor groups that wanted economic reform to help Canadians affected by Great Depression. Governed by Saskatchewan Tommy Douglas went on to be the first leader of NDP. This folded into NDP eventually

New democratic party

Founded in Ottawa 1961 at a convention uniting CCF and affiliated unions of Canadian Labor Congress (CLC) and also New Party Clubs. In 2011- historical electoral breakthrough (official opposition in Parliament for first time) 2015 - this party returned to 3rd place in H.O.C

Proportional Representation

Characterizes electoral systems by which division in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. If 30% of electorate support a political party, roughly 30% of seats will be won by that party.

Triple-E Senate

A proposal for Senate reform in which each province would have an equal number of Senators, who would be elected and who would be given effective powers.

Bloc Quebecois

Federal political party created 15, June, 1991 - Founded as a parliamentary movement composed of Quebec MP's, who left Conservative and Liberal parties after the failure of Meech.
This party promotes Quebec's interests and sovereignty in H.O.C led by former conservative cabinet Minister Lucien Bouchard, before Parti Quebecois - 1996

Stephane Dion

Involved in Federal Politics since 1996 - when he joined Liberal Cabinet under PM Chretien. Architect of the Clarity Act - developed a key role in Fed Government's position on Quebec sovereignty. Became leader of liberal party in 2006, resigned in 2008, sat as a regular member of parliament until 2015 when he became Cabinet minister in Majority government under J. Trudeau

Coalition Government

Created when different political parties cooperate by forming a temporary alliance large enough to enjoy the confidence of parliament; allowing them to form a government

Jack Layton

1950-2011 - Leader of Federal NDP. Known for white ribbon campaign, supporting Kyoto Accord and he's the son of Robert Layton (Former Quebec Liberal)

Permanent voter's list

Shows all people registered to vote in a particular polling division (area within a riding). Voters lists are based on information in National Register of electors permanent database of Canadians aged 18+ who are qualified to vote in Fed. elections and referendums

Door-to-door enumeration

survey to prepare a voters list for an election. Canadian Federal Government no longer does this type of enumeration. Instead, maintain perm voters list which are updated on an ongoing basis

prorogation of parliament

like summoning and dissolution of parliament, prorogation is a prerogative act of the crown, taken on the advice of PM Parliament is actually prorogued either by governor general in senate chamber or by proclamation published in Canada Gazette