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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
M. A. D.
Mutually Assured Destruction
Pacifism
Opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes; specifically : refusal to bear arms on moral or religious grounds
Disarmament
The policy of eliminating a state's offensive weaponry; may occur for all classes of weapons or for specified weapons only; the logic of the policy is that fewer weapons leads to greater security.
Nuclear Proliferation
The spread of nuclear weapons or nuclear weapons technology; Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty obligates nuclear powers not to transfer their nuclear technology to third countries and to work toward nuclear disarmament and obligates nonnuclear signatories to refrain from acquiring or developing the technology.
Unlimited Self Defense
There are some people who believe that, because of the nature of humans and the nature of the international system, unlimited self-defense is the prudent policy. Advocates of this approach are suspicious of arms control.
Functionalism
* War is caused by economic deprivation/
* Economic disparity cannot be solved in a system of intependent states.
* New functional units should be created to solve specific economic problems.
* People will develop habits of cooperation, which will spill over from economic cooperation to political cooperation.
* In the long run, economic disparities will lessen and war will be eliminated.
Collective Good
Public goods that are available to all regardless of individual contribution.
Jus In Bello
Acceptable wartime conduct
Jus Ad Bellum
Justifications to engage in war.
ICC
International Criminal Court
Universal Rights
Human righs believed to be basically the same at all times and in all cultures, a controversial notion.
Cultural Relativism
The belief that human rights, ethics, and morality are determined by cultures and history and therefore are not universally the same.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
UN: Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
The Fog of War
Lesson #1: Empathize with your enemy.
Lesson #2: Rationality will not save us.
Lesson #3: There's something beyond one's self.
Lesson #4: Mazimize efficiency.
Lesson #5: Poportionality should be a guideline in war.
Lesson #6: Get the data.
Lesson #7: Belief and seeing are both often wrong.
Lesson #8: Be prepared to reexamine your reasoning.
Lesson #9: In order to do good, you may have to engage in evil.
Lesson #10: Never say never.
Lesson #11: You can't change human nature.
Federalism
• War is caused by individual states exercising sovereignty.
• Peace will be achieved if states transfer sovereignty to a higher federal body.
• In a federal system, states will be joined together and sovereignty transferred to the collectivity.
• In a federal system, the root cause of war has been eliminated.
Functionalsim
• War is caused by economic deprivation
• Economic disparity cannot be solved in a system of independent states.
• New functional units should be created to solve specific economic problems.
• People will develop habits of cooperation, which will spill over from economic cooperation to political cooperation.
• In the long run, economic disparities will lessen and war will be eliminated.
Roth
War in Iraq: Not a Humanitarian Intervention

• The Level of Killing
• The Last Reasonable Option
• Humanitarian Purpose
• Compliance with Humanitarian Law
• Better Rather than Worse
• U.N. Approval
Dershowitz
Want to torture? Get a warrant
Powers
Bystanders to Genocide
Silvergate
Response to "Want to torture? Get a warrant"
Federalism
• War is caused by individual states exercising sovereignty.
• Peace will be achieved if states transfer sovereignty to a higher federal body.
• In a federal system, states will be joined together and sovereignty transferred to the collectivity.
• In a federal system, the root cause of war has been eliminated.
Functionalism
• War is caused by economic deprivation
• Economic disparity cannot be solved in a system of independent states.
• New functional units should be created to solve specific economic problems.
• People will develop habits of cooperation, which will spill over from economic cooperation to political cooperation.
• In the long run, economic disparities will lessen and war will be eliminated.
Collective Goods
• Collective goods are available to all members of the group regardless of the individual contributions.
• Some activities of states involve the provision of collective goods.
• Groups need to devise strategies to overcome problems of collective goods cause by the negative consequences of the actions of others – the “tragedy of commons.”
• Strategies include the use of coercion, changing preferences such as by offering positive incentives to refrain from engaging in an activity, and altering the size of the group to ensure compliance.
Security Dilemma
in the absence of centralized authority, on state’s becoming more secure diminishes another state’s security.
Types of War
• General War
• Civil War
• Limited War: Limited to objectives, like the first Gulf War or Korean War.
How Wars Are Fought
• Conventional means
• Weapons of Mass Destruction
• Asymmetric Warfare: Weaker party seeks to neutralize its opponent’s strengths, by exploiting that opponent’s weaknesses.
o Guerilla Warfare
• Terrorism
o Premeditation
o Motivation or a cause
o Targets, which are usually non-combative
o Secretiveness
Just War Tradition
• There must be a just cause (self-defense or the defense of others)
• There must be a declaration by a competent authority (UN Security Council)
• The leaders have to have the correct intentions, desiring to end abuses and establish just peace.
• All other possibilities should have been exhausted
• Forces need to be rapidly removed after the humanitarian objectives have been secured
Just War Tradition, Conduct
• Combatants and noncombatants must be differentiated, with the later protected as much as possible
• The violence used needs to be proportionate to the ends to be achieved.
• Undue human suffering should be avoided at all costs.
Managing Security
• Liberal
o Collective Security
 Wars are prevented by restraint of military action
 Aggressors must be stopped
 The aggressor is easily identified
 The aggressor is always wrong
 Aggressors know the international community will act against them.
o Arms control and disarmament
• Realist
o Balance of Power
o Deterrence
 Decision makers are rational
 The threat of destruction from warfare is large
 Alternatives to war are available.
3 Kinds of Human Rights
• First-generation human rights: possessed by an individual that the state cannot usurp.
• Second-generation human rights: individuals have a right to education, health care, social security, and housing. Also referred as “positive rights”.
• Third-generation human rights: specify rights for groups such as ethnic or racial groups.
Global Governance
implies that through various structures and processes, actors can coordinate interests and needs although there is no unifying political authority.
Sources of International Law
• Customs
• Treaties
• Authoritative Bodies
• Courts (International, National, Local)
Roth's Reason to go to War
The Level of Killing
The Last Reasonable Option
Humanitarian Purpose
Compliance with Humanitarian Law
Better Rather than Worse
U.N. Approval