• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

319 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

_______________ may be formally defined as a consciously coordinated social entity, with a relative identifiable boundary, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.

An Organization

______________ alludes to the organization's goals and the public served.

Relatively Identifiable Boundary

________ refers to the fact that organizations are composed of people who interact with one another and with people in other organizations.

Social Entity

All sorts of managerial processes occur within the police department. They include:

1. Decision Making

2. Planning

3. Leadership

4. Motivation

5. Control of subordinate's behavior

Supervisors are concerned with ____ and ____.

tasks and human resources

____________ refers to the face that supervisors are responsible for people.

Human resources

__________ theory explains how an organization operates and provides the background for understanding productivity and leadership.

Organizational theory

__________ is considered to be the father of scientific management.

Frederick Winslow Taylor

Frederick Taylor's views caught on and soon emphasis was placed entirely n the formal administrative structure; later, such terms as: _____, _______, _______ and ________ became a part of the workplace vocabulary.

1. authority

2. chain of command

3. span of control

4. division of labor

Having several different supervisors on a job so that each ne oversaw a particular aspect of the job is considered ___________ supervision.

functional supervision

As a rule of thumb, at least _____ percent of all sworn personnel should be assigned to patrol.


The US DOJ BJA in 1999 found that an average of ____ percent of sworn officers in local police agencies were uniformed, with regular duties that included responding to calls for service.


Police administrators, through mission statement, policies and procedures, ____ and ____ attempt to ensure that the organization maintains its overall goals of ___, ___ and ___, and that it works amicably.
1. mission statement
2. policies and procedures
3. proper management style
4. direction

a. crime suppression
b. order maintenance
c. investigation

Max Weber, the German sociologist, who claimed in 1947 that a ___________ organization is capable of attaining the highest degree of efficiency and is the most rational known means of carrying out the imperative control over human beings.

Bureaucratic Organization

The administration of most police organizations is based on the ________, ________, _________ organizational structure containing the elements of a bureaucracy: __________, ___________ and ____________.

1. traditional

2. pyramidal

3. quasi-military

a. specialized functions

b. adherence to fixed rules

c. hierarchy of authority

The administration of most police organizations is based on the ________, ________, _________ organizational structure containing the elements of a bureaucracy: __________, ___________ and ____________.

The administration of most police organizations is based on the traditional, pyramidal, quasi-military organizational structure containing the elements of a bureaucracy: specialized functions, adherence to fixed rules and hierarchy of authority.

The major differences between agencies exist between the large and the very small agencies.

The larger will be more complex, with much more specialization, hierarchal structure and a greater degree of an authoritarian style of command.

Egon Bittner contended that the military-bureaucratic organization of the police was a serious handicap to the development of a truly professional police system. Some of the reasons for this disillusionment include:

1. quasi-military rank and disciplinary structures

2. lack of opportunity of management to match talent and positions

3. restricitons on personal freedom of expression

4. communication blockage in the tall structure

5. lack of management flexibility

6. narrowness of job descriptions in lower ranks

The traditional school of thought is that each supervisor can effectly supervise only ___ employees.

seven (7)

_________ theory is more compatible with the bureaucratic model than with scientific management because it concentrates on broader principles.

Administrative theory

Division of work, Authority, Discipline, Unity of Command, Unity of direction, Subordination, remuneration, centralization, scalar chain, order, equity, stability, initiative and esprit de corps are all principles of what type of management?

General and Industrial Management (1949) Fayol

POSDCORB stands for?

1. Planning

2. Organizing

3. Staffing

4. Directing

5. Coordination

6. Reporting

7. Budgeting

According to Gulic and Urwick, what is the commonly accepted span of control in policing?

Six to ten officers


Scientific management theory and the principles of administration became known as:

Classical Organizational Theory

___________ is an organizational principle that dictates that every officer should report to one and only one superior.
Unity of Command

With regard to span of control, a patrol lieutenant may have ____ or _____ sergeants reporting to him or her.

four or five

The distortion of information as it flows through the organization; slow, ineffective decision making and action; increased functional roadblocks and "turf protection;" emphasis on controlling the bureaucracy rather than on customer service; higher costs due to the lower number of managers and management support staff; and less responsibility assumed by subordinates for the quality of their work can all be reduced by:

spans of control

_____, _____ and ________ are important for defining role expectations.

policies, procedures, and rules and regulations

_______ are quite general and serve as guides to thinking, rather than action. They reflect the purpose and philosophy of the organization and help interpret those elements to the officers.


______ are more detailed and provide the preferred methods for handling matters pertaining to investigation, patrol, booking, radio procedures, filing reports, roll call, use of force, arrest, sick leave, evidence handling, promotion and many more job elements.


__________ are specific guidelines that leave little or no latitude for individual discretion.

Rules and regulations

The emergence of labor unions had begun to put pressure on management to develop more humane and effective ways of managing and supervising workers.

Human Relations theory emerged

Of McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y, which viewed employees negatively:

Theory X

What are the three organizational theories?

1. Classical Organizational Theory

2. Human Relations Theory

3. Systems Theory

________ has it's roots in biology. An organization is similar to a living organism.

Systems Theory

The _______________ emphasizes the interdependence and interrelationship of each and every part to the whole.

Systems approach

A systems oriented supervior and other leaders must look at the big picture and continually analyze and evaluate how the entire organization is performing with respect to its ________, ______ and _______.

1. mission

2. goals

3. objectives

A systems approach also takes into account the potential impact of decisions on external factors, such as the: __________, _________, and __________.

1. general public

2. political environment

3. other criminal justice agencies

____ percent of police administrators in Wycoff's study reported that there was no need to change the organizational structure of their department to implement community policing.

61 percent (61%)

All organizations have an organizational structure, be it _______, ___________ or _________.

1. written

2. unwritten

3. highly complex

The major concerns in organizing are:

1. identifying what jobs need to be done

2. determining how to group the jobs

3. forming grades of authority

4. equalizing responsibility

What distinguishes the higher ranking officers from supervisors is that they also perform ______, _______, __ and _______.

1. planning

2. organizing

3. staffing

4. and other managerial functions

What three factors influence the organization?
1. the informal organization
2. police culture and inertia
3. employee organizations and unions

Under COPPS, police leaders must also be ______.


Under COPPS, police leaders much be _____. This means:

a. Pioneers

1. Shifting from telling and controlling to helping to develop skills and abilities

2. listening to the customers in new and more open ways

3. solving problems, not just reacting to incidents

4. trying new things and experimenting, realizing that risk taking and honest mistakes must be tolerated to encourage creativity and achieve innovation; and

5. avoiding, whenever possible, the use of coercive power to effect change

The chief executive must adopt what four practices as part of the COPPS implementation plan?
1. communicate to all department members the vital role of COPPS in serving the public
2. provide incentives to all department members to engage in COPPS
3. reduce the barriers to COPPS that can occur.
4. Show officers how to address problems. Training is a key element.

Subordinates expect supervisors to ________, _____________, and to ___________.

1. be understanding

2. protect them from management's unreasonable expectation and arbitrary decisions

3. represent their interests

the ___________ is where each supervisor in the chain of command is a coordinator and conduit of information between the higher level of management and the lower level of workers.

linking pin system

The supervisor's role, put simply, is:

to get his or her subordinates to do their very best

Of the ten supervisory tasks listed in chapter 2, which three involve control:

1. ensures that general and special orders are followed

2. observes subordinates in handling calls and other duties

3. reviews and approves various departmental reports

Of the ten supervisory tasks listed in chapter 2, which two are global supervisory tasks:

1. supervises subordinate officers in the performance of their duties

2. provides direct supervisorion on potential high risk calls or situations

Of the ten supervisory tasks listed in chapter 2, which two are directing tasks:

1. disseminates information to subordinates

2. interprets policies and informs subordinates

Of the ten supervisory tasks listed in chapter 2, what are the top four most important tasks, in order of importance:

1. supervisors subordinate officers in the performance of their duties

2. disseminates information to subordinates

3. ensures that general and special orders are followed

4. observes subordinates in handling calls and other duties.

Supervisory tasks can range from the mundane to the challenging. Tasks may be ______, ______, _____ or ______.

1. administrative

2. operational

3. general

4. specialized

What are the four types of supervisors:

1. traditional

2. innovative

3. supportive

4. active

The ___________ is law enforcement oriented. They expect their subordinates to produce high levels of measurable activities such as traffic citations and arrests.

traditional supervisor

The ___________ tends to involve themselves in the field. They are sometimes police officers with stripes or rank.

active supervisor

The ___________ is most closely associated with community policing. To some extent, they are the opposite of traditional supervisors.

innovative supervisor

What is the ultimate goal of the innovative supervisor?

to develop officers so they can solve problems and have good relations with citizens

The _____________ is concerned with developing good relations with subordinates. They are concerned with protecting officers from what are viewed as unfair management practices.

supportive supervisor

what supervisor is most like the supportive supervisor:

innovative supervisor

what supervisor, to some extent, are the opposite of traditional supervisors:

the innovative supervisor

Of the 15 most important responsibilities for lieutenants, what are the top five:

1. assisting in supervising or directing the unit

2. performing the duties of a police officer

3. ensuring that dept or gov't policies are followed

4. preparing duty roster

5. reviewing the work of individuals or groups in the section

Of the 15 most important responsibilities for lieutenants, which are supervisory functions:

1. assisting in supervising or directing

2. ensuring that dept or gov't policies are followed

3. reviewing the work of individuals or groups in the section

4. responding to field calls requiring on scene commander

5. reviewing various reports

6. coordinating activities of subordinates on major investigations

What are the top four most critical or important tasks performed by captains:

1. issuing assignments

2. receiving assignments for section/unit

3. reviewing complaints and reports

4. preparing routine reports

captains are more concerned with _____, _____, and the ________.

1. tasks

2. unit activities

3. overall performance of the officers

What are more important aspects of policing organizations that distinguish police supervision from supervision in general?

1. wide variety of tasks found in police organizations

2. characteristics of police officers

3. strength of the police culture

4. nature of police work itself

A supervisor should spend at least _____ % of his time managing.


Positions abov sergeant require more conceptual skills, such as ________, _______, _______ and ______.

1. planning

2. organizing

3. staffing

4. budgeting

It is probably not uncommon for ____ to ____ percent or more of eligible officers to take the supervisor's test.

60 to 65%

A great deal of variety exists among the ________ or so police departments in the United States.


The greatest source of police organizational variation is _____.


Another important difference between small and large police agencies is the _______________ that affects supervisors.

degree of specialization

One of the most influential leadership theories hold that the nature of subordinates is the key determinant of ___________.

which management style will be most successful.

Every indication is that this ________________ is quite applicable to police supervision.

situational or contingency theory

The most compelling characteristics that these recruits have in common are __________, _____________, and _______________.

1. a desire to help others

2. an interest in job security

3. perhaps some inclination towards risk taking and adventure

Perhaps the greatest responsibility given to police supervisors is that of _____________.

guiding the moral and intellectual development of their subordinates

The role of the supervisor and manager is affected by the strength of ___________, which is a determining factor in work behavior.

the police culture

Along these same lines, many supervisors use the rule of ______________, which states that a superior does not have the time to supervise all of the activities under his or her control, and therefore, should devote energy and time only to those exceptional tasks or activities.

management by exception

Supervisors should use _________, _________, _________ and other ________ and _________ under their control to drive home the message that all the varied functions of policing are legitimate aspects of police work.

1. performance appraisals

2. assignments

3. commendations

4. other rewards

5. punishments

Every police agency, large or small, should have a written media policy that is grounded on certain basic precepts:

1. never lie or embellish a story

2. never slowly release details of a story in tiny scraps

3. don't lash out at the press

4. don't try to shift blame unnecessarily

5. look at the big picture

6. honor your promises

7. remember that the best news is that bad news really will pass

because it is important to "speak with one voice", the agency should also explain to all personnel the proper steps for referring reporters up the chain of command. There are five basic approaches:

1. only the agency head speaks

2. anyone can speak

3. the senior ranking officer at the scene can speak

4. only designated person can speak

5. only the PIO can speak

Level ________ executives are ambitious, but their ambition is directed first and foremost to the organization and its success, not personal renown. These leaders are fanatically driven, infected with an incurable need to produce results.

Level 5

Level ______ is an effective Leader

Level 1

Level ____ is a highly capable individual

Level 4

Level ____ is a competent manager

Level 2

Level ____ is a contributing team member

Level 3

Level 5: highest level of executive capabilities

Level 4: Highly capable individual

Level 3: contributing team member

Level 2: competent manager

Level 1: effective leader

Level 5: highest level of executive capabilities

Level 4: Highly capable individual

Level 3: contributing team member

Level 2: competent manager

Level 1: effective leader

The main point about assembling the right team is that great leaders assemble their teams _____ they decide where to go.


Good to great organizations have a ___________ which employees show extreme diligence and intensity in their thoughts and actions, always focusing on implementing the organizations mission, purpose and goals.

culture of discipline

Noe, Bennis and Nanus, believe today's leadership environment must be examined in three major contexts: _________, ________ and ________.
1. commitment
2. complexity
3. credibility

__________ is the process of directing the behavior of others towards the accomplishment of some objective; the process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group in efforts toward goal achievement in a given situation; the process of directing and influencing the task-related activities of group members.


<--- 3 definitions

Zone of indifference:

subordinates do not respect their leader or they question his or her directives

Katz (1974) identified three essential skills that leaders should possess:

1. technical skills

2. human skills

3. conceptual skills

_____ is the capacity to translate knowledge into action in such a way that a task is accomplished successfully.


________ are those skills a manager needs to ensure that specific tasks are performed correctly

technical skills

_________ skills involve working with people and include being thoroughly familiar with what motivates employees and how to utilize group processes.

Human skills

________ skills, according to Katz, involve "coordinating and integrating all the activities and interests of the organization towards a common goal.

Conceptual skills


a grant made by the formal organization to a position, which the person occupying that position weilds in carrying out his or her duties.

______ is the foundation of leadership


____________ is also known as participative management, dispersed leadership, open book management or industrial democracy.


Today's policing, particularly in this community oriented policing and problem solving era demands __________, ________, and _________ that results from employee empowerment.

1. self initiated thinking

2. innovation

3. freedom

What are the four cycles in Situational Leadership and Employee Empowerment:

1. Participating

2. Delegating

3. Telling

4. Selling


Supervisors at all levels should also recognize that empowering employees offers the benefits of decreased ____________, ____________, ___________, _________ and ____________.

1. decreased work related stress

2. increased job satisfaction

3. higher employee involvmenet

4. contributions

5. positive outcomes

Of the four cycles for situational leadership and employee empowerment, which describes: officers feel more confident and motivated. they share ideas and can experiment. Joint decision making becomes more frequent. Supervisory oversight is less invasive.


Of the four cycles for situational leadership and employee empowerment, which describes: supervisors model behavior and provide specific instructions on expectations, boundaries and limits.


Of the four cycles for situational leadership and employee empowerment, which describes: little visible supervisory oversight exists. Officers are held accountable and hae freedom to make decisions and take actions. Leaders are also responsible; they align trust and accountability to ensure work is done properly.


Of the four cycles for situational leadership and employee empowerment, which describes: communication becomes more open and leaders seek ideas and suggestions from officers. buy-in becomes important and so does officer commitment. goal setting takes place. praise and recognition build esteem, confidence and motivation.


The CEO's interpersonal role includes _______, _______, and ______ duties.

1. figurehead

2. leadership

3. liaison

The leadership function requires the CEO to _______ and _______ workers.

1. motivate

2. coordinate

According to Mintzberg's view of Chief Executives, what are the three roles as an analytic framework:

1. interpersonal role

2. informational role

3. decision maker role

In the interpersonal role, the figurehead performs various ___________ functions.


In the interpersonal role, the leadership function requires the CEO to __________ and ________ workers.

motivate and coordinate

In the interpersonal role, the liaison role is performed when the CEO of a police organization _________ with other organizations and __________ work flows.

1. interacts

2. coordinates

What three functions are involved in Mintzberg's informational role:

1. monitoring/inspecting

2. disseminating information

3. acting as a spokesperson

In the monitoring/inspecting function, the CEO constantly looks as the workings of the department to ______________________.

ensure that things are operating smoothly

The monitoring/inspecting function is also known as:

"roaming the ship"

The dissemination task in the informational role involve getting information to _______________.

members of the department

The spokesperson function is related, but is more focused on getting information to _____________.

the news media

In Mintzberg's Decision-Maker role, what four functions does the CEO serve?

1. entrepreneur

2. disturbance handler

3. resource allocator

4. negotiator

In Mintzberg's Decision-Maker Role, as the entrepreneur, the CEO must _____________.

sell ideas to the governing board or the department

In Mintzberg's decision-maker role, as the resource allocator, the CEO must _____________.

be able to say no to subordinates.

In Mintzberg's decision-maker role, as the negotiator, the police manager ____________ and sits as a member of the negotiating team for labor relations.

resolves employee grievances

In order for the chief executive to engage in strategic management, he or she must first be a strategic _____________ and __________.

thinker and planner

Strategic planning is both a leadership tool and a process. It is primarily used for one purpose which includes four parts:

1. help an organization do a better job

2. to focus energy

3. ensure members are working towards same goals

4. assess and adjust direction in response to changing environment

_____________ is a disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization is, what it does and why it does it with a focus on the future.

Strategic Planning

Strategic Planning includes the following elements:

1. oriented towards the future

2. based on thorough analysis of foreseen or predicted trends

3. thoroughly analyzes the organization and its potential

4. qualitative, idea-driven process

5. continuous learning process

The planning process ______ options, _____ directions, helps __________ make appropriate decisions.

The planning process EXPLORES OPTIONS, sets DIRECTIONS, and helps STAKEHOLDERS make appropriate decisions.

The first step in the planning cycle is to identify the planning team, which should include the involvement of the following key stakeholders, both internal and external to the organization:

1. department and city leadership

2. department personnel

3. the community

4. interagency partners

Strategic Management is _______.

a systems management approach that uses the proper thinking and planning approaches.

Motivation generally refers to the set of processes that ____, ____, and ______ human behavior towards attaining some goal.

1. arouse

2. direct

3. maintain

According to Maslow, people's needs are not random but progress in a ______________.

Hierarchy of needs

According to Maslow, what are the five needs in his "hierarchy of needs":
1. survival
2. security
3. social
4. ego-esteem
5. self-actualization

According to Maslow, people are motivated by their _________ of unsatisfied need.

lowest level

According to McClelland, what three needs or motives did he identify that are important to an individual within an organizational environment:

1. need for achievement

2. need for power

3. need for affiliation

According to Nanus (1985), to be a manager is to bring about, to accomplish, to have charge of responsibility for, to conduct.

According to Nanus (1985), Leading is influencing, guiding in direction, course, action, opinion.

Davis (1940) found ____ different charachteristics or traits that he considered important.


According to Davis (1940), ____ traits were required for executive success.

10 traits

According to Davis (1940), what ten traits were required for executive success:

1. intelligence

2. experience

3. originality

4. receptiveness

5. teaching ability

6. knowledge of human behavior

7. courage

8. tenacity

9. sense of justice

10. fair play

According to the University of Michigan study, what three beliefs of a successful leader were found:

1. leader assumes leadership role

2. closeness of supervision will have direct bearing on production of employees

3. employee-orientation is a concept that includes the manager's taking an active interest in subordinates

The managerial grid has two dimensions:

1. concern for production

2. concern for people

The five leadership styles in the managerial grid are:

1. authority-compliance management

2. country club management

3. middle-of-the-road management

4. impoverished management

5. team management

According to Swanson and Territo (1982), they surveyed 166 departments and found that almost ____ % of the participants reported that they primarily used the team management style.


Of the 166 departments surveyed, _____ % reported the task or middle-of-the-road style management as their primary form of leadership.


11% Authority Compliance Management

9% Country Club Management

29% Middle-of-the-road management

15% impoverished management

40% team management

11% Authority Compliance Management

9% Country Club Management

29% Middle-of-the-road management

15% impoverished management

40% team management

The basic components of contingency theory are:

1. among peoples needs is a central need to achieve a sense of competence

2. the ways that people fulfill this need vary from person to person

3. competent motivation is most likely to occur when there is a fit between task and oreintation

4. a sense of competence continues to motivate people even after competence is achieved

To increase personal power, a manager can attempt to develop: (4)

1. a sense of obligation in other organizational members that is directed towards the manager

2. a belief in other organizational members that the manager possesses a high level of expertise within the organization

3. a sense of identification that other organizational members have with the manager

4. the perception in other organizational members that they are dependent on the managers

What are the four styles of leadership in Likert's leadership systems?

1. Exploitive-Authoritarian Leadership

2. Benevolent-Authoritarian Leadership

3. Consultative Leadership

4. Participative Leadership

Of Likert's leadership systems, which style describes: most policies and decisions are made by top management and are distributed through the chain of command, but sometimes managers and supervisors listen to subordinate's problems.

Benevolent-Authoritarian Leadership

Of Likert's leadership systems, which style describes: this leader has no confidence or trust in subordinates, and subordinates are not allowed to provide input into decisions.

Exploitive-Authoritarian Leadership

Of Likert's leadership systems, which style describes: this leadership style involves subordinates having input not only into tactical decisions, but also into policy formulation

Participative Leadership

Of Likert's leadership systems, which style describes: this leadership style involves management's establishment of goals and objectives for the department with subordinates making some of the decisions on methods of goal achievement.

Consultative Leadership

Heifertz proposed what four principles for bringing about adaptive change:

1. Be able to recognize when the challenge requires adaptive work for resolution

2. Remember that adaptive change will cause distress in the people being led

3. Keep the focus on the real issue

4. Ensure that the people who need to make the change take the responsibility for doing the work of change themselves

What are the seven (7) types of problem bosses?

1. Ticket punchers

2. Spotlighters

3. Mega-delegators

4. Micromanagers

5. One Best Style

6. Control Takers

7. The Phantoms

Steven Brown (1989) provided a list of 13 fatal errors that can erode a leader's effectiveness. What are the top 7?

1. refuse to accept personal responsibility

2. fail to develop people

3. try to control results instead of activity

4. join the wrong crowd

5. manage everyone the same way

6. forget the importance of service

7. concentrate on problems rather than objectives

A recent report by the USBOJ stated that ____ % of all police agencies, employing _____ % of all officers in the nation, now have full time personnel performing COPPS functions.

58% of all police agencies employing 82% of all officers in the nation

_____________ is a proactive philosophy that promotes solving problems that are criminal, affect our quality of life, or increase our fear of crim, as well as other community issues.

Community Oriented Policing and Problem Solving


COPPS involves ________, _______ and _______ community problems at their source.

1. identifying

2. analyzing

3. addressing

COPPS, with its focus on collaborative problem solving, seeks to improve the quality of policing. Several steps must be taken to accomplish COPPS:

1. police must be equipped to define more clerarly and to understand more fully the problems they are expected to handle

2. the police must develop a commitment to analyzing problems; and

3. police must be encouraged to conduct an uninhibited search for the most effective response to each problem

SARA stands for:









What is the most important and most difficult step in the SARA process?


In SARA, Scanning means:

problem identification

One explanation of crime may be found in routine activity theory, which postulates that a crime will occur when three elements are present:

1. a suitable victim

2. a motivated offender

3. a location

CPTED stands for Crime prention through environmental design










________ is defined as the proper design and effective use of the environment that can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidence of crime, and an improvement in the quality of life

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design


At the core of CPTED are three principles that support problem solving approaches to crime:

1. Natural Access Control

2. Natural Surveillance

3. Territorial Enforcement

______________ is a targeted means of reducing crime, providing a framework for strategies to prevent rime by making settings less conducive to unwanted or illegal activities; it focuses on the environment rather than on the offender, while making criminal activity less attractive to offenders.

Situational Crime Prevention

Crime prevention can be divided into five primary objectives:

1. Increasing the effort to commit the crime

2. Increasing the risks associated with the crime

3. Reducing the rewards

4. Reducing the provocations

5. Removing the excuses

What four steps can be taken to increase the effort needed to commit the crime:

1. target hardening

2. controlling access

3. deflecting offenders

4. controlling facilitators

What four steps can be taken to increase the risks associated with the crime:

1. entry/exit screening

2. formal surveillance

3. informal surveillance

4. natural surveillance

What three steps can be taken to reduce the rewards from crime:

1. target removal

2. identifying property

3. removing inducements

PERF provided a list of characteristics for a good COPPS supervisor which include:

1. allows officers the freedom to experiment with new approaches

2. insists on good, accurate analyses of problems

3. grants flexibility in work schedules when requests are appropriate

4. allows officers to make contacts directly and helps when they are having problems

5. protects officers from pressures from the department to revert to traditional methods

6. runs interference for officers to secure resources and protects them from criticism

There are four methods for overcoming the problem of finding time for problem solving while still handling calls effectively:

1. allows units to perform problem solving assignments as self initiated acitivites

2. schedule one or two units to devote a predetermined part of their shift to problem solving

3. take more reports over the telephone

4. review the department policy on "assist" units

In addition to leadership, what three things are important for the successful implementation of COPPS:

1. organizational culture

2. field operation

3. external relations

__________ is a strategic control system designed for the collection and feedback of information on crime and related quality of life issues.


_________ has been summarized as collecting, analyzing and mapping crime data and other essential police performance measures on a regular basis and holding police managers accountable for their performance as measured by these data.


A national survey found that _____ % of large agencies had either adopted or were planning to implement a compstat like program.


The key elements of CompStat are as follows:

1. specific objectives

2. accurate and timely intelligence

3. effective tactics

4. rapid deployment of personnel and resources

5. relentless follow up and assessment


What are the three steps in CompStat analyses?

1. Descriptive statistics, or presenting the data so everyone can readily understand the relevant information

2. comparing the data to reveal the relationship between two or more crimes. These statistics are called "measures of association"

3. mapping data (spatial analysis) can detect where criminals travel

_________ is a companion process to communication.


A good _________ must be skilled in negotiations.


__________ is the art of gaining compliance or selling people on an idea.


Mayo (1983) found that police executives spend about _____ percent of their time communicating.


More and Wegener (1996) reported that about ____ percent of supervisors communications is with subordinates.


More and Wegener (1996) reported that about ______ percent of supervisors communication is with superiors in the department.


More and Wegener (1996) reported that only about _____ percent of supervisors communication is with other supervisors.


More and Wegener (1996) reported that only about _____ percent of supervisors communication is with the public.


More and Wegener (1996) examined the tasks performed by sergeants and found that _____ percent of the tasks involved some form of communication.


___________ has been defined as the process by wich the sender--a person, group, or organization --transmits some type of information to another person, group or organization.


Lussier (1999) expanded the definition of communication by noting that communications occur with the intent to _______, ______ or _______ or opinions.

1. influence

2. inform

3. express feelings or opinions

____________ communications are the official transmission of information in the organization and they generally follow the police department's chain of command or organizational chart.

Formal communications

__________ refers the manner in which a message is sent.


Once information is transmitted to a recipient, the recipient must ______ the message or conceptually translate the information into meaningful knowledge.


Feedback serves to ensure that everyone received the correct information. The level of feedback should increase:

1. as the content of messages becomes more complex

2. when it is critical that receivers have the information

3. when the information is drastically different from past information or operating procedures

4. when there are disruptions in the communications process itself

Katz and Kahn (1966) found that downward communications fall into one of five categories:1

1. job instructions

2. rationale or explanations about jobs

3. procedures, practices and policies

4. feedback on individual performance

5. efforts to encourage a sense of mission and dedication toward departmental goals

____________ occur when either the sender's or the receiver's perception of the other affects how the message is sent or received.

Perceptual problems

Four perceptual problems in communication are:

1. status

2. stereotyping

3. value judgments

4. semantic problems

_____________ to communication are those attributes and activities in the immediate environment that interfere with or detract from the communications process.

Physical barriers

The following elements should be considered prior to communicating:

1. sender's purpose

2. sender/receiver position in the department

3. content of the message

4. methods for sending the message

5. possible interpretations of the message

6. sender's desired results


Only 7% of the message we intend to communicate is in our words

________________ is the most effective way of communicating because it can maximize feedback between the sender and receiver.

face to face

Supervisors should not only be open to feedback but they must also _______ it to ensure that communications are received and understood.


_____________ is the act of putting oneself in another's position.


_____________ is coaxing or assisting the other's communication.

active listening

Gibson and Ivancevich (1995) defined ___________ as the collaborative pursuit of joint gains and a collaborative effort to create value where none previously existed.


Applying various leadership styles to different situations is a key part of ____________.


What three criteria are used to judge the effectiveness of negotiations:

1. quality

2. cost

3. harmony

Of the three criteria used to judge the effectiveness of negotiations, ________ refers to attempts by both sides to come to a win-win solution?

a. quality

b. cost

c. harmony

d. empathy

a. quality

Of the three criteria used to judge the effectiveness of negotiations, ________ refers to the time and energy spent negotiating.

a. quality

b. cost

c. harmony

d. empathy

b. cost

Of the three criteria used to judge the effectiveness of negotiations, ________ refers to the feelings of personnel about the department and its members after the conflict or problem is resolved.

a. quality

b. cost

c. harmony

d. empathy

c. harmony

What three elements comprise the prenegotiation stage?

1. negotiator must fully understand what is at issue

2. negotiator needs to be empathetic and understand the other side's position

3. negotiator understands all options before sitting down to negotiate

Cohen (1980) identified three important factors that identify a successful negotiator. They are:

1. power

2. time

3. information

Power refers to the negotiator's ability influence or have an impact on the other side.

The good negotiator understands time and uses it to his advantage.

** Information is the most important tool when negotiating **

What are the six tactics from which the negotiator can select as identified by Donnelly (1995):

1. good guy / bad guy team

2. the nibble

3. joint problem solving

4. power of competition

5. splitting the difference

6. lowballing

_________________ is a situation in which two or more people disagree over issues of organizational substance and experience some emotional antagonism with one another.

Organizational Conflict

Conflict has four key elements:

1. individuals or groups with opposing interests

2. acknowledgment that the opposing viewpoints or interests exist

3. the belief by parties that the other will attempt to deny them their goal or objective

4. one or both sides of the conflict have overtly attempted to thwart the other's goals and objectives

Conflict can occur at four levels within the agency:

1. Intrapersonal

2. Interpersonal

3. Intergroup

4. Interorganizational

What are four organizational causes of conflict within a work group?

1. Competition over resources

2. ambiguity over authority

3. organizational reward system

4. power differentials

What are five interpersonal sources of conflict within a work group?

1. interpersonal communication

2. faulty attributes

3. distrust

4. grudges

5. personal characteristics

What are five means of addressing conflict:

1. avoidance

2. accommodation

3. competition

4. compromise

5. collaboration

_____________ is one of the most critical functions performed by today's police organization. I can also be one of the most critical, because of liability and public trust and treatment issues.


__________ aspects refer to providing officers with information about the procedures and laws for doing the job.

Technical aspects

___________ aspects refer to the training officers receive about how to apply procedures and law and the ramifications should the procedures and law be applied inappropriately.

Discretionary aspects

____________ is one of the strongest investments in their training by police departments.

academy training

There are about _____ state and local police academies operating in the United States.


The median number of hours offered in basic recruit training is ______ hours.


Nearly _____ percent of police academies provide training on the SARA problem solving process.


What are the four types and methods of training academies?

1. State Certification

2. Field Training (FTO) and (PTO) programs

3. Roll call training

4. In-service training

How many phases are there in field training?


Regarding one's learning capacity, Malcom Knowles (1981) believed in self directed learning and that adults should ________, _________, and ___________.

1. acquire the skills necessary to achieve the potentials of their personalities

2. understand their society

3. be skilled in directing social change

______________ is a learning process that stimulates problem solving, critical thinking and team participation and attempts to make learning relevant to real-world situations.

Problem-based learning (PBL)

Bloom's Taxonomy of six learning activities listed in ascending order:

1. knowledge

2. comprehension

3. application

4. analysis

5. synthesis

6. evaluation

*** In service training *** is the most commonly utilized method for maintaining and improving officer performance and competency and may also reduce the likelihood of citizen complaints and future litigation.

Training evolves from a logical and cyclical process. The training cycle contains five interrelated components:

1. training needs assessment

2. establishing objectives

3. program development

4. delivering training

5. conducting an assessment

The FBI's Instructor Development Course recommends four steps to complete a total course assessment:

1. Evaluation reaction (like training?)

2. Learning evaluation (facts/techniques learned?)

3. Behavior Evaluation (job behavior results)

4. Results (tangible results of program)

Of all local police agencies, only ____ percent require officers to have some college.


Higher education requirements

8% some college

9% 2 year degree

1% four-year degree

College graduates are significantly less likely to violate their department's internal regulations regarding insubordination, negligent use of a firearm, and absenteeism than officers who lack a college degree.

Online distance learning is increasing by about 15% per year. Roughly 1.5 million Americans are enrolled in online-higher education programs.

CompStat was introduced to NYPD in 1994.

___________ theoretically refers to how well the police provide services to citizens.


The definitions of productivity point to four general concerns when attempting to measure productivity:

1. efficiency

2. effectiveness

3. equity

4. accountability

__________ refers to how well the task is performed, regardless of cost, as a result of program activities. (were program goals met)


__________ refers to the accomplishment of a given task with a minimum expenditure of resources.


___________ refers to the quality of police services delivered to various groups in the community.


___________ refers to whether or not resources are used for proper purposes and infers that the police are public servants and consequently should provide services that meet public concerns and needs.


The National Institute of Justice identified six attributes of a healthy police department, with healthy being operationalized as maximally serving the community They are:

1. a department knows what it wants to accomplish. It has articulated goals and objectives.

2. a healthy or productive department knows its citizens.

3. a police department should know its business.

4. a department must understand the needs of the business

5. a good department knows its people (what motivates subordinates)

6. a productive department provides its constituents with feedback o police activities occurring and what is occurring in the jurisdiction.

Four important innovations have contributed to improved productivity:


Problem Solving

Citizen Surveys


Strategic Planning

is an administrative process that drivers agency vision, mission and goals. It may also be defined as a systematic and continuous process of analyzing internal and external conditions in order to make more accurate decisions that effectively deal with problems and issues.

The planning process becomes the link between internal measures or productivity and external needs. This planning model has a number of problems:

First, police departments have difficulty identifying overall goals and often resort to general statements that provide little direction for lower level managers and supervisors.

Second, when goals are identified, it becomes difficult to make adjustment when the environment changes.

Third, lower-level managers and supervisors often have little input into the system.

____________ is the primary tactic used in the COPPS strategy.

Problem solving

Four principles govern CompStat:

Timely and accurate intelligence

rapid deployment

effective tactics

relentless follow up and assessment

The maps in CompStat serve to:

Assist in devising strategies

Focus attention and police resources

Holds commanders and supervisor accountable for their operations

Citizen surveys can provide a great deal of information:

Perceptions of crime problems

Perceptions of disorder in the area

Fear of crime

Citizen satisfaction with police services and performance

Citizen satisfaction with other related governmental services

___ percent of all agencies, employing ___ percent of all officers, survey citizens in their jurisdiction

22 percent of all agencies, employing 43 percent of all officers, survey citizens in their jurisdiction

___________ is the process of evaluating how well employees do their jobs compared with a set of standards and communicating that information to those employees.

Performance Appraisal

In order for a department to have an effective performance evaluation, it must have _________, _________ and __________.

Performance Standards

A method of measuring performance

A way to provide officers with feedback relative to their performance

Police departments generally identify three reasons for a formalized appraisal:

To standardize the nature of the personnel decision making process so that the rights fo the job incumbent are fully represented

To assure the public that the agency representatives are fully qualified to carry out their assigned duties

To give the job incumbent necessary behavior modification information to maintain behaviors that are appropriate

The performance appraisal serves a number of organizational purposes:

1. Recruitment and selection

2. Training

3. Field Training Officer evaluation

4. Horizontal Job Changes

5. Promotions

6. Compensation Management

7. Discipline

Defining rating criteria is a three step process:

1. Job is studied

2. performance standards must be established

3. performance appraisal rating form used to capture standards


Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale

The following is a list of some of the most common rater errors:

1. Halo effect

2. Recency problem

3. Rater bias

4. Constant error problem

5. Unclear standards

The _______ occurs when a rater evaluates a subordinate high or low on all rating dimensions because of one dimension

Halo effect

_________ refers to when a recent negative or positive event unduly affects an officer's ratings.

Recency problem

___________ refers to some raters being too strict, others too lenient while still others ten to rate everyone in the middle.

Constant Error Problem

McEvoy (1987) investigated subordinate appraisals of managers, with the following findings:

1. subordinate appraisals have been used for development rather than evaluation

2. managers report that subordinate feedback is helpful in improving their performance

3. substantial amount of "halo" exists in subordinate appraisals of managers

4. modest positive correlation exists between ratings by subordinates

There are a number of steps in preparation for feedback sessions:

1. prior to session, supervisors should refresh memories regarding ratee's evaluation

2. supervisors should know what they are going to say before the interview

3. both positives an negatives should be discussed

4. force the ratee to discuss his/her performance

5. force the rate to develop a performance plan

6. leave subordinate with clear understanding of what is expected

The most common reasons why performance appraisals were ineffective were:

1. performance criteria are subjective

2. systems lack managerial control

3. supervisors have little input into process but are major users

4. forms are filed and mean nothing

5. management is not concerned about performance

6. supervisors' performance assessments are changed by administrators who have not observed the officer perform on a daily basis

______________ occurs when the subordinate and the supervisor jointly identify performance goals for the subordinate and how they are to be achieved.

Performance targeting

Performance targeting can be used at all levels within the chain f command. It is a modified form of _______________ (MBO)

Management by Objectives

The work environment creates ______ which may be defined as a force that is external in nature that causes both physical and emotional strain upon the body.


positive stress is referred to as


Negative stress is referred to as


chronic stress generally represents

the accumulation of the effects of numerous stressful events over time

Selye (1981) formulated the __________________ to describe the stress process.

General Adaptive Syndrome (GAS)

General Adaptive Syndrome (GAS) consists of three stages:

1. alarm

2. resistance

3. exhaustion

Police stress is viewed as a

personal pathology

The first five years of a police officers career can be described as a period of:

alienation and alarm

The second phase (years 6 through 13) may be characterized as:

the disenchantment phase

During years 14 through 20, officers get back on track in the:

personalization phase

As their career approaches 20 years, police officers become ___________ about their jobs.


Police stressful events fall within one of four general categories:

1. organizational and administrative practices

2. the criminal justice system

3. the public

4. stress intrinsic to work itself

It has been estimated that at any point in time, ____ percent of a department's officers will be in a burnout phase.


The 15% of a department's officers that are in a burnout phase account for ____ to ____ percent of all the complaints against their department.

70 to 80 percent

The negative effects of stress on individuals typically harm agencies as well as officers, leading up to:

reduced morale

public relations problems

labor management friction

civil suits stemming from stress related shortcommings in personnel performance

tardiness and absenteeism

increased turnover

added expenses of training and hiring new recruits

The primary methods used to reduce stress are:

Social Support

Organizational restructuring

wellness programs

_________ refers to communications and actions that can lead individuals to believe that they are cared for, important and an integral part of a network of mutual obligations.

Social support

Five important dimensions are subsumed within wellness. In order to move toward optimal health or wellness, individuals must improve their lifestyle in each of the following areas:






Researchers found that ____ percent of officers had problems in at least one area with the consumption of alcohol being the most frequent problem.

83 percent

A comprehensive wellness program should include five elements:

physical fitness

stress management

psychological and mental health

nutrition and dietary related problems

alcohol/chemical dependency

Kroes (1976) estimated that ___ percent of police officers have a serious drinking problem.

25 percent

Another study found that ____ percent of officers in one department abused drugs while on duty.

20 percent

Van Raate (1979) found that ____ percent of officers in one department admitted to drinking on duty.

67 percent

There are a number of arguments for immediate termination if the officer is found to be using illegal drugs:

1. Officer has committed a crime

2. officer has associated with known criminals when obtaining the illegal drugs

3. officers drug use poses a liability problem for the police department

Immediate termination is counter to a humane view of police personnel administration, however, it should be realized that job stress may be the primary contributing factor to the drug useage.

The department has a significant investment in each of its officers and termination should not be taken lightly. Finally, problem officers can be salvaged and returned to work as productive officers.

The term ethics is rooted in the ancient Greek idea of _______.


Ethics involves doing what is right or correct and is generally used to refer to how people should behave in a professional capacity.

Deontology means the "study of duty"

Deontological ethics

does not consider consequences but instead examines one's duty to act.

Broadly speaking, ethical issues in policing have been affected by three critical factors:

1. the growing level of temptation stemming from the illicit drug trade

2. the potentially compromising nature of the police organizational culture (exalting loyalty over integrity)

3. the challenges posed by decentralization

Noble cause corruption

is corruption committed in the name of good ends, corruption that happens when police officers care too much about their work

Accepted Lying

are police activities to apprehend or entrap suspects. This type of lying is generally considered to be trickery.

Deviant lying

refers to occasions when officers commit perjury to convict suspects or are deceptive about some activity that is illegal or unacceptable to the department or public in general

__________ occurs when the idea of a crime beings with the police rather than the suspect and the police facilitate the commission of a criminal act.


Gary T. Marx identified three methods of, or situations where the police may attempt to use trickery with a suspect:

1. offering illegal action as part of a larger socially acceptable and legal goal.

2. disguising the illegal action so that the suspect does not know the action is illegal

3. morally weakening the suspect so that the suspect voluntarily becomes involved.

Withrow and Dailey (2004) have proposed a model of circumstantial corruptibility, stating that the exchange of a gift is influenced by two elements: the role of the giver and the role of the receiver

In this model, the role of the giver determines the level of corruptibility.

In this model, the giver is either taking a possession as a:





offers a gift voluntarily without any expectation of a return from the receiver


furnishes something toward a result and expects something in return


involuntarily responds to the demands of the receiver.

The role of the receiver of the gift is obviously very important as well. In the model, the receiver can act as an:





receives the gift humbly and without any residual feelings of reciprocity


looks forward to the gift and regards it as likely to happen and will be annoyed by the absence of the gift


assumes total control over the exchange and influence over the giver

Carter (1994) has attempted to provide a typology of abuse of authority by police officers. his categories include:

physical abuse and excessive force

verbal and psychological abuse

legal abuse and violations of civil rights

Known as the _____________, this approach combines a use of force continuum with an application of four broad categories of suspects:

Dynamic Resistance Response Model (DRRM)

The __________ syndrome essentially implies that officers must make deadly force decisions in a matter of a precious few seconds.

split-second syndrome

contagious shooting

is gunfire that spreads among officers who believe they, or their colleagues, are facing a threat

Research has long indicated that officers frequently base their decisions to arrest on factors such as:

suspect's demeanor

socioeconomic status



relationship between the suspect and victim

preference of the complainant

Because sexually related improprieties can and do occur, police supervisors and managers must be vigilant of such inappropriate behaviors, seven of which are:

nonsexual contacts that are sexually motivated

voyeuristic contacts

contacts with crime victims

contacts with offenders

contacts with juvenile offenders

sexual shakedowns

citizen-initiated sexual contacts

Any employee wishing to initiate an Equal Employment Complaint (EEO) arising out of prohibited conduct must contact an EEO official within ____ days of the incident. (Federal Communications Commission, 2007)

45 days

Supervisors may incur direct liability in the following ways:

1. they authorize the act

2. they are present for the act

3. they ratify the act

As a result of case law, there are currently five areas in which supervisors have been found liable as a result of negligence:

negligent assignment

negligent failure to supervise

negligent failure to direct

negligent entrustment

negligent failure to investigate or discipline

Negligent assignment occurs when the supervisor assigns a task to a subordinate without first determining that the subordinate is property trained and capable of performing the required work.

Negligent failure to supervise occurs when the supervisor fails to properly oversee subordinates activities.

Negligent failure to direct occurs when supervisors fail to advise subordinates of the specific requirements and limits of the job.

Negligent entrustment occurs when supervisors entrust officers with equipment and facilities and fail to properly supervise the officer's care and use of the equipment and subsequently the officers commit an act using the equipment that leads to a violation of a citizen's federally protected rights.

Proximate Cause

is established by asking, "but for the officer's conduct, would the plaintiff have sustained the injury or damage?"