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34 Cards in this Set

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Primordialist Arguments

-Treat culture as something that is objective and inherited


-Something that has been fixed since "primordial" times

Constructivist Arguments

-Treat culture as something that is constructed or invented rather than inherited


- Evidence mostly follows this belief

Montesquieu's argument

-Monarchy was suited for European states


-Despotism (absolute power) was suited for the Orient (asia)


-Democracy was suited for the ancient world



-Only by chance would an area change political institutions



-Nonfalsifiable

Mill's belief

-Did not see certain cultures as necessary conditions for democracy and thought cultures were malleable



-Did believe certain cultures were more suited for democracy



-Nonfalsifiable

Cultural modernization theory

-Economic development produces culture changes that will eventually produce democracy

Civic Culture

A shared cluster of attitudes that are thought to promote democracy and democratic performance

Types of political culture

-Parochial- Traditional system of African tribes



-Subject- Centralized authoritarian systems



-Participan/Civic- Democracy


Political culture

-Determined by how individuals think and feel about the political system



-Almond and Cera studied this by conducting surveys

Dimensions of cross-culture variation

-Traditional values versus secular-rational values



-Survival values versus self-expression values

Traditional values

-Relgion, traditional family roles


-National pride, rejection of divorce

Secular-rational values

-Less emphasis on religion, traditional family roles


-Support for divorce

Survival values

-Emphasis on physical and economic security


-low levels of interpersonal (between people trust)

Self-expression values

-Emphasis on gender, racial equality


-High levels of interpersonal trust

Industrialization phase

-Countries move away from traditional values to secular-rational values

Post-industrialization phase

Sees countries move away from survival values to self-expression

Values Story (Cultural Modernization Theory)

-Economic development produces cultural change that leads to democratization

Institutional Story

-Economic development leads to democratization, which, in turn, leads to cultural change

Problems of surveys

-Sensitive topics and preference falsification


-Differential item functioning


Social desirability bias

The tendency of individuals to overreport 'good behavior' and underreport 'bad behavior'

DIF

When individuals or groups understand survey items differently or evaluate survey items using different scales

Problem 1 soultions

- Survey administration (interviewers with similar demographic characteristics, allowing respondents to report their answers in private)



-Randomized response techniques



-List experiments (List with sensitive and nonsenitive, control, items)



-Endorsement experiments


Problem 2 Solution

-Anchoring vignettes


-Respondents provide a self assessment by using assessment of a story

Samuel Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations

-Conflicts in the world will be cultural rather than ideological or economic


- The west insistence on imposing their values will only antagonize other civilizations

Religions and democracy

-Islam and Confucianist countries cannot sustain democracy


-Catholic countries will find it hard to sustain democracy


-Protestantism can sustain democracy

Protestantism

-Can sustain democracy because it encourages economic development, which creates a middle class which is a necessary condition for democracy

Catholicism

-Empahsis on only one church and truth is incompatible with democracy need to accept various different and competing ideologies as legitimate

Confucianism

-Its respect for authority and emphasis on communalism make it incompatible with democracy

Islam

-Islam had a violent streak that predisposes Islamic countries to authoritarianism



-Islam is unable to dissociate religious and political spheres



-Islam treats women unequally

Empirical evidence

All religious doctrines contain elements that can be viewed as conductive or detrimental to democracy



-Cultures are invented, constructed and malleable rather than primordial, inherited and unchanging



-Stance of different religions towards political institutions depend less on religious doctrines and more on the interests religious leaders at the time

Fixed point in time

-A religion will appear to be less or more democratic, so people will assume it's compatible/incompatible



-Effect of religion on democracy should be look at over time

Ethnic, Religious and Culture Hypothesis

Countries with a large number of "blank" are less likely to become and stay democratic

Emergence of Democracy

-Catholic countries are more likely to be democratic


-Having a Protestant or Muslim majority has no effect on democratic transitions


-Ethic, religious, and cultural diversity has no effect

Ultimatum Game

-Split money Game


-Proposer typically make positive offers because people care about fairness

Dictatorship Game

-Like the Ultimatum Game but the responder cannot accept or reject