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45 Cards in this Set

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2 goals of congress
Conflicting goals: Citizens have conflicting goals when it comes to the operation of their national legislature

Institutionalized Goals: The rules that determine how Congress works were designed by the founders to produce slow, careful lawmaking that can seem motionless to an impatient public
Lawmaking
the creation of policy to address the problems and needs of the entire nation
Representation of Congress
the efforts by elected officials to look out for the interests of those who elect them
Policy representation
congressional work to advance the issues and ideological preferences of constituents
Allocative Representation
congressional work to secure projects, services, and funds for the represented district
Casework Representation
legislative work on behalf of individual constituents to solve their problems with government agencies and programs
Symbolic Representation
efforts of members of Congress to stand for American ideals or identify with common constituency values
Congress passes bills
President signs or vetoes
(President’s State of the Union address formulates policy)
President powers
*appoints cabinet, ambassadors, judges to federal courts
*represents national constituency
*controls Executive branch and executes laws
Reapportionment
a reallocation of congressional seats among the states every ten years, following the census
Redistricting
process of redrawing district lines in states with more than one representative (carried out by state legislators or commission)
Gerrymandering
redistricting to benefit a particular group
Racial Gerrymandering
redistricting to enhance or reduce the chances that a racial or ethnic group will elect members to the legislature
Strategic Politican
office-seeker who bases the decision to run on a rational calculation that he or she will be successful
Standing Committee
permanent committees responsible for legislation in particular policy areas
House Rules Committee
determines how and when debate on a bill will take place
Select Committee
appointed to deal with an issue or problem not suited to a standing committee
Joint Committee's
combined House-Senate committee formed to coordinate activities and expedite legislation in a certain area
Conference Committee
*formed temporarily to reconcile differences in House and Senate versions of a bill
*may alter or rewrite legislation
Congressional Policymaking
*Congress is a bi-cameral
*Congress has fragmentation
*Congressional norms
Bill becomes a Law
*Getting on the legislative agenda
President: State of the Union, exercises role as policy entrepreneur; highly publicized agenda

*Legislative process
Introduced and then moves through committees (most often dies here or is marked up)
Bill Getting to the floor
*House has rules on debate from Rules Committee
*Senate can offer amendments or filibuster (stopped only by cloture)
Final Challenge for passing a bill
*Roll call vote; if bill passes with different language, must go to conference committee
*Presidential veto
*Congress can override veto with two-thirds vote in each chamber
Head of Gov v.s. Head of State
*Head of government: the political role of the president as leader of a political party and chief arbiter of who gets what resources
*Head of state: the apolitical, unifying role of the president as symbolic representative of the whole country
Presidential Qualifications
*Chosen by Electoral College (modified by 12th Amendment)
*Limited to two 4-year terms in office (22nd Amendment)
*Natural-born citizen; resident for 14 years
*At least 35 years old
*Vice president succeeds in event of death, disability, or resignation (20th and 25th Amendments)
*Removal from office by House impeachment and Senate conviction for “high crimes and misdemeanors”
President power-CHIEF ADMIN
head of federal agencies and responsible for the implementation of national policy; appoints cabinet members (heads of departments and agencies)
President power-COMMANDER IN CHEIF
top officer of the country’s military establishment and civilian head of American military forces
President power-CHIEF FOREIGN POLICY MAKER
negotiates treaties, makes executive agreements with other countries
State of Union Address
speech given by the president to a joint session of Congress and to the nation announcing the president’s agenda
Presidential Veto
*president’s authority to reject a bill passed by Congress
*may only be overridden by two-thirds majority in each house
*veto threat often brings congressional compromise
Executive Orders
*clarification of congressional policy issued by the president and having the full force of law
*Historically responsible for major policy shifts
Judicial Powers
nominate judges to the federal courts and justices to Supreme Court
Solicitor General
Justice Dept. officer who argues government’s cases before Supreme Court
Pardoning Power
release or excuse person from legal penalties of a crime
Inherent Powers
implied but not stated explicitly in the Constitution
Expectations Gap
high public expectations but limited constitutional authority means presidents rely on informal powers
Power to persuade
a president’s ability to convince Congress, other political actors, and the public to cooperate with the administration’s agenda
Presidential Cabinet
*Members head the executive departments
*Cabinet members have own views; may not be loyal
Executive office of the President (EOP)
*Designed to serve president’s interests and exert control over executive branch
*OMB, NSC, Council of Economic Advisors
White House Office
*Close relationship to president
*Chief of staff: the person who oversees the operations of all White House staff and controls access to the president
Vice President
fill this out still !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Presidential Character
Expectation that knowing about presidential personalities will help explain or predict presidential behavior
BARBER TYPOLOGY (for presidential character)
*based on energy level and orientation toward life; provides four types of presidents
Presidential Style
image projected by the president that represents how he would like to be perceived at home and abroad
Impeachment
FILL THIS OUT