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390 Cards in this Set

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57.5% of Swiss voted yes to a measure that ban building of ___ to prevent political Islam and sharia law symbol.

proposition 8

___ bans same-sex marriage in the state of California (2008)


"we still live with political institutions that have baked in a distinctly pro-__bias, by design"


The Electoral College is just one example of how an increasingly urban country has ___the politicalstructures of a rural past.


populous states ____ less populous ones, which receive more resourcesthan the tax dollars they send to Washington

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Measurement of size ofthe economy, C + I + G + (X-M), Consumption + Net Investment + Government +(exports - imports)


fed owns ___ percent of GDP, 1/6 of workforce (smaller than most countries)

- Maintain Law & Order

- Protection of individual rights & property rights

- Provide / Produce & Regulate Goods & Services

- Promote equality

- Foreign policy

Fundamental Roles of Government


Government has the fundamental right of ___(Police Power)


Hobbes’ _____ (1651)– all powerful government needed because people live in “warof all against all”

“Two treatises on government”

John Locke – ____ (1690) – Life, Liberty, & Land


All property belongs to all people; people = the state

Goods and services that are Provided / Produced & Regulated

-Public goods (Defense)

-Publicly provided private goods (Education, health care)

-Toll goods (Parks, highways, museums)

-Common pool resources (forests, fisheries, clean air & water)

Law and Order

-Paternalism / safety

-Moral rules & obligations

-Protection of rights

-Provision of Legal System

-Punishment for crime


rules of operation

Regulation and subsidization of private production Establishes the ___


Provision and ___ are not necessarily the samething

Types of goods typically provided bygovernment (public goods theory)

Governmental areas on equality

-Transfer Payments

-Regulations on Workplace, Wages, & Discrimination

-Programs for disadvantaged

-Diversity Programs



Freedom of...
Civil liberties (Speech, Religion, Press, Assembly)


Fundamental right of coercion, Police power



Equality of opportunity

Equality of outcomes

Human rights

Dilemmas of government

Freedom vs. order

Freedom vs. Equality


Govt should have unlimited power (political system) (Hitler; Stalin)


State owned production & resources; no private property


Strong role for government in regulating private industry; promoting growth; andensuring equitable distribution of resources


Free enterprise; private ownership

Limited government role in economy


Extremely limited government; no role for govt to provide social programs,promote equality, etc.

Laissez faire economic system “let the people do as they please”


No govt in any form


Conservatives tend to support ___ over freedom

Liberals tend to support ___ over freedom

} Liberals tend to support ___ over freedom


half of fed budget goes to

individual income taxes

fed tax revenues are collected mostly from ___ followed by payroll taxes and corporate income taxes


Group of powerful people dictate policy; preferences flow from elite to masses


Media elites

Political elites

Educated elites

Business Elites


Capitalists vs. Workers


-Constant struggle for resources

-Marx anticipated that capitalists would control more & more resources, leading to growing inequality, leading to revolution by the Proletariat (workers)


Power rests with unelected officials (the Czars)

-Drug Czar

-National Security Czar

-Debt Commission

-Heads of Major Bureaucracies (EPA, Dept of State, Dept of Defense, etc)


Competing special interests, (that modern society consists of innumerable groups that share economic, religious, ethnic, or cultural interests. O)

Business / specific businesses




(ex)Trump says I alone can do it

Autocracy = _____– power dictated by 1 individual


similar to elitism but more democratic (Russiaafter Soviet: resources privatized and people get share of companies’ and fewpeople move to aggregate power. (A system of government in which power is concentrated in the hands of a few people.)


Power in hand of many

participatory democracy

A system of government where rank-and-file citizens rule themselves rather than electing representatives to govern on their behalf.

Direct participatory Democracy

founders did not make thisbut now we practice this. Local issues get decided at town hall in Britain.California makes a referendum in which people vote to. In ATL, we have referendumtoo whether we want to increase our taxation for transportation, or on certaintaxation on crimes, etc…

representative democracy

A system of government where citizens elect public officials to govern on their behalf.


Formal or informal rules, customs & norms of behavior that governinteraction amongst participants (at a political level, constitution, unwritten rules for HoR,Senate…. How governments respond to people)

Majoritarian model

The classical theory of democracy in which government by the people is interpreted as government by the majority of the people. (massrule by the people, founders worried about illiberal democracy, it may violatebasic rights of people)

Pluralist Model

you join the interest groups that reflectyour view. Even though supreme court legalized abortion though statesanti-abortion law can be added. /Criticism: Interest groups does not fullyrepresent people, not everyone joins interest groups – control of government byonly interest groups that does not represent everyone. Lindblom – businesseshave a stronger political power through their profits. You can’t do a thingwith your little money.

Interest group liberalism

Criticism of Pluralist Model

-Competing interest groups reflect preferences of people

-People self organize into interest groups that aggregate their preferences

-However, interest groups only represents segments of people… leading to control ofgovt by special interests

Lindblom “Politics & Markets”

Criticism of Pluralist Model

-The privileged position of business

-Business can use profits to manipulate political process; more likely to get its way thanordinary individuals or other types of interest groups

Adam Smith – “Wealth of Nations”

Criticism of Pluralist Model

-Argues that the concentration of commerce could be used to secure political power

-Decentralized markets were best because they prevented accumulation of economic orpolitical power

How representative is the U.S. government?

Criticism of Pluralist Model

-Wyoming (450k residents) gets as much representation in Senate as California (36 million residents)

-Senators from just 21 states, representing just 12% of population (and voted for by about 2% ofeligible voters) can prevent action in the senate!

The Procedural View

How decisions are made?

Substantive View

What are the Outcomes of PoliticalPower?

Who iseligible to vote?, how much does participation count?, how many votes areneeded? What percentage?, Is there a guarantee of civil rights?

Whatmetrics might be we be interested in if we're trying to measure or understandPROCEDURAL democracy?

Outcomes: growth, minimal standard of living, basic rights,access to healthcare, education…etc

What metrics might we consider if we're interested inSUBSTANTIVE democracy?

Corruption (substantive view), Voice and Accountability (howmuch people vote, extent to which officials are accountable), Rule of Law(Substantive View – what extent to law and rules are following each other),Government Effectiveness (Substantive View)

Measuring Democracy


A process of transition as a country attempts to move from an authoritarian form of government to a democratic one.

Democratic rise in the Middle East has a goal of extremiststate so it’s not clear if the theory holds true to that case. (ethnic,religious strife) & Political, economic instability

Democratization is not easily justified because?

Illiberal Democracy – Democracy that does not respect therights of the minority – speech, religion like Middle East

Democracy that does not respect therights of the minority – speech, religion like Middle East


Brief, but defines the nature of our government

Divides power across 3 branches

Highly symbolic – considered ‘holy

Historical basis for Constitution

Colonial America allowed freedom of property transfers

No ceilings on wages

No compulsory payments to established church

Seven Years’ War (French & Indian War) – (1756 – 1763)very costly… England argued that colonists should pay forwar that protected them from French

Colonists were disenchanted with English rule

Declaration of Independence

byThomas Jefferson) – unalienable rights – Life, Liberty &the Pursuit of Happiness… followed by 27 paragraphs ofspecific grievances

One of the grievances was slave trade (later dropped)


States began writing _____… 1776 – eight stateshad written _____

State _______had detailed bills defining personalliberties

increasing need for order

Revolutionary War (1775 – 1781)

Articles of Confederation (1781)

Could make peace, could coin money, appt army officers, run postoffice

States were warring with each other over lands in the west; Unionhad to rely primarily on state militias, etc.

Pennsylvania Govt

Massachusetts Govt

Shay’s Rebellion 1786 – stoked fears of anarchy & need for central govt

Developing a Constitution

Philadelphia Convention – 55 delegates from 12 states(no RI)

Framers were concerned with factionalism, tyranny of themajority, & individual rights Sought to devise a government strong enough topreserve order, but not so strong as to threaten liberty

“You must first enable the government to control thegoverned; and the next place oblige it to control itself” –Madison

The Virginia Plan

Strong national government organized in to legislative,executive, judicial branches.

Legislative branch divided into 2 houses: 1 chosen by people; 1chosen by first house among those nominated by statelegislatures.

Executive & judiciary chosen by national legislature.

Executive & some members of judiciary = ‘council of revision’which could override legislature

National legislature would act on all matters states were notcompetent to act & could veto all state laws.

1 house directly elected by people.

The New Jersey Plan

Worried about large states trampling small states.

Base national govt on Articles of Confederation} Weak national govt;

Single Chamber Legislature

1 state = 1 vote

Multiperson executive – no veto power

Supreme Tribunal

The Great Compromise / ConnecticutCompromise

-House of Rep 65 members apportioned amongst states,directly elected. (No more than 1 for every 30k people &at least 1 per state)

-Senate – 2 senators from each state chosen by statelegislatures (changed by 17th amendment in 1913)

-Electoral college as compromise between direct electionand election by legislature

-Electors chosen by legislature elect president; #2 = vicepresident (changed in 1802 to elect each separately)

-House empowered to charge President of crimes

-Senate could try President of crimes

The Federalist Papers

Written anonymously by Hamilton, Madison, & Jay (most byHamilton, though #10 & #51 by Madison)

factions / special interests

In Federalist, Madison specifically argued for a strong union to preventagainst _______ (#10)

-Role of govt to protect property rights

-Argued that large societies could provide more freedoms

-More competition of special interests leads to less power of each

Federalist #51

____ – Separation of Powers The Federal system (state vs. national)} Specifically separated to protect the rights of the minority} And to limit the power of any one branch

Federalist 68: The Electoral College

“And as the electors, chosen in each State, are toassemble and vote in the State in which they are chosen,this detached and divided situation … will be much lessapt to convulse the community with any extraordinary orviolent movements”

“These most deadly adversaries of republican governmentmight naturally have been expected to make theirapproaches from more than one querter, but chiefly fromthe desire in foreign powers to gain an improperascendant in our councils."

Republicanism, Federalism, Checks & Balances

Basic Principles of the Constitution


-Representative government (though not necessarily democracy)

-Specifically sought to avoid direct democracy; oligarchy; & monarchy


-Division of labor between states & national level of government – however, it is unclear which authorities lie with each level of government

-Specific authorities listed to national level “enumerated powers”

-Also interstate commerce

-Provide for the “taxation and … general welfare”

-Some powers to the states “reserved powers” Issue licenses and regulate commerce wholly within a state

-Divided powers “concurrent powers”

Roads, taxes, courts

Checks & Balances

Gives each branch some level of scrutiny & authority over otherbranches

Article I – Legislative Article

-Bicameral legislature

-Enumerated powers

Regulation of commerce among the states, Taxation, Coin money & regulate valueDefense, Others…

-Implied powers

-Establish a bank (coin money; taxation; & regulate value)

-Any other power that the Congress would need to carry outtheir enumerated powers (necessary and proper clause)

Article II – Executive Article

-President’s term

-Electoral College procedure


-President’s duties & powers

-Commander in chief of military

-Treaties (with advice & consent of Senate)

-Appointments (with advice & consent of Senate)

-Execution of laws of Congress (broad leeway (Executive orders, Bureaucracy)

Article III - Judiciary


-Congress can determine size, procedures, etc ofjudiciary

-Federal judges serve for life

-Congress can check the power of judiciary through abilityto create or eliminate federal courts

-Does not explicitly give courts judicial review; this was inferredfrom structure

-(Marbury vs. Madison 1803)

override a veto, impeach

How can a congress check the power of

How can a congress check the power ofpresident?

veto, implementation of laws

How can a president check the power of

How can a president check the power ofcongress?

Judicial review, injunction

How can the judiciary check the power of the
President and the Congress?

How can the judiciary check the power of thePresident and the Congress?

Rest of the Articles

-Provide for equality

Generation of new states

-Amending Constitution

-Supremacy clausen-National government laws, treaties, & constitution takes precedenceover state or local laws

-Ratification procedure-9 states

-Reserved powers: Powers to issue licenses & regulate commerce wholly within a state

-Concurrent Powers-Taxation, building roads, borrowing money, having courts

Declaration of Independence

Drafted by Thomas Jefferson, the document that proclaimed the right of the colonies to separate from Great Britain.

social contract theory

The belief that the people agree to set up rulers for certain purposes and thus have the right to resist or remove rulers who act against those purposes.


A government without a monarch; a government rooted in the consent of the governed, whose power is exercised by elected representatives responsible to the governed.


A loose association of indepen- dent states that agree to coop- erate on specified matters.

Articles of Confederation

The compact among the thirteen original states that established the first government of the United States.

Virginia Plan

A set of proposals for a new government, submitted to the Constitutional Convention of 1787; it included separation of the government into three branches, division of the legislature into two houses, and proportional representation in the legislature.

legislative branch

The lawmaking branch of government.

executive branch

The law-enforcing branch of government.

judicial branch

The law-interpreting branch of government.

New Jersey Plan

Submitted by the head of the New Jersey delegation to the Constitutional Convention, a set of nine resolutions that would have, in effect, preserved the Articles of Confederation by amending rather than replacing them.

Great Compromise

Submitted by the Connecticut delegation to the Constitutional Convention, and thus also known as the Connecticut Compromise, a plan calling for a bicameral legislature in which the House of Representatives would be apportioned according to population and the states would be represented equally in the Senate.

electoral college

A body of electors chosen by voters to cast ballots for president and vice president.

extraordinary majority

A majority greater than the minimum of 50 percent plus one.


A form of government in which power resides in the people and is exercised by their elected representatives.


The division of power between a central government and regional governments.

separation of powers

The assignment of lawmaking, law-enforcing, and law- interpreting functions to separate branches of government.

checks and balances

A government structure that gives each branch some scrutiny of and control over the other branches.

enumerated powers

The powers explicitly granted to Congress by the Constitution.

necessary and proper clause

The last clause in Section 8 of Article I of the Constitution, which gives Congress the means to execute its enumerated pow- ers. This clause is the basis for Congress’s implied powers. Also called the elastic clause.

implied powers

Those powers that Congress needs to execute its enumerated powers.

judicial review

The power to declare congressional (and presidential) acts invalid because they violate the Constitution.

supremacy clause

The clause in Article VI of the Constitution that asserts that national laws take precedence over state and local laws when they conflict.

Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments to the Constitution. They prevent the national government from tampering with fundamental rights and civil liberties, and emphasize the limited character of national power.

Government promoting equality in expense offreedom

Duringthe 1960s, Congress passed legislation that requires men and women to be paidthe samewage if they perform the same work. What isthis an example of?


Whatdo we call a model of government that places a high value on participationthrough organized groups?


Themeasure to ban minarets in Switzerland is an example of what theory ofgovernment behavior?

declaration of Independence

There was no strong government after thesigning of the ____. Many left to other countries likeCanada.

Emoluments Clause

an obscure provision of the Constitution that now poses risks forPresident-elect Donald J. Trump should he continue to reap benefits from transactions with companies controlled byforeign governments. -“no person holding any officeof profit or trust” shall “accept of any present, emolument, office or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, princeor foreign state” unless Congress consents.
exclusion, oversight
Many were upset about ___or ___of individualrights from Constitution

Promise that these would be included… shortly afterratification, Madison sought to include Virginia’s bill ofrights into national constitution


12 approved by Congress; 10 ratified & went into effect

___ th amendment extended these to be limitations onstate power (1868)

Bill of Rights

Alexander Hamilton: Federalist #84:} “The truth is, after all the declamations we have heard, that theConstitution is itself, in every rational sense, and to everyuseful purpose, A ___.


Did not receive much attention in Constitution (other than arestriction from doing anything about it until 1808), Some of the founders wanted slavery addressed; toocontroversial

3 compromises on slavery

-3/5 rule (as opposed to southern states, which wanted all slavescounted towards representation

-No prohibitions until 1808 (implying that after that time, prohibitionscould be made)

-Fleeing slaves must be returned


Most founders were not particularly ___(to the disdain ofmany people at the time)


There is no mention of __in the Constitution ; Specifically prohibits religious test to hold office


Declaration of Independence refers to “unalienable rights” ascoming from “the ___”

Enlightenment rationalists and evangelical Christians

The Constitution was a product of ____ who were deeply concerned withthe separation of religion and government


___ argued that liberty, order, & progress requiredstrong national govt (Federalists vs. Antifederalists)


Antifederalists argued that liberty was not secure inhands of distant national govt; freedom requires_____ (Federalists vs. Antifederalists) - Still many of the debates continue today

national govt

Many argue that___ is still too weak to resistpressures of special interests that reflect & perpetuateinequality} Represents fundamental shift in how we perceive equality &inequality

money and power

Founders were highly concerned with confluence of___

political privilege

Greatest sin of England was ___ } (ban on nobility)


Today, we’re concerned with ___:} Money buying political power (campaign contributions; darkmoney, etc)} Political power allowing for self-dealing & corruption} Political power allowing for more entrenchment of $ andpolitical power

Division of labor between States and Federalgovernment (interstate commerce)

Marijuana laws}

Educational standards (with federal funding)}

Health insurance standards (with federal funding)} -Medicaid

equal protection clause

(Electoral college vs. Equal protection underthe law)Winner take all electoral college likely conflicts with___ } State laws that require electors to vote a certain wayconflicts with 12th amendment electoral collegeprocedures

Foreign Emoluments Clause (article 1, section 9, clause 8)

Prohibition on receiving gifts from foreign governments} Trump’s business dealings likely conflict (foreign governmententerprises are partners)

Domestic Emoluments (Article II)

Prohibition on any additional compensation from states} Tax breaks for development likely conflict

Congress has created laws to specifically implement withcabinet and on themselves:

Tax disclosure} STOCK act – (prevents insider trading on political power) (whichpassed 417-2 in house)

Mass Deportation

Conflicts with 14th amendment and due process} Every person is entitled to due process

Ban on Muslim immigration

Conflicts with 14th amendment} Conflicts with 5th amendment

Ban on certain mosques

} Conflicts with 1st amendment

Expanding libel laws

Conflicts with 1st amendment

} Killing and torturing families of terrorists

Conflicts with 8th amendment & 5th amendment

Removing Judge Curiel from power

Conflicts with separation of powers

Flag burning

Mostly conservative justices overturned prohibitions on flag burning} Trump has said he wants severe punishment

Amending the Constitution (Changing the Constitution)

Proposal} 2/3 of House & Senate (all have been done this way)} 2/3 of State Legislatures

Ratification} ¾ of states or state legislatures

Judicial Review & Interpretation(Changing the Constitution)

Framer’s intent, vs. what is right for today’s society

Meanings of words

Deliberate vagueness by framers may have intended interpretation

Madison: Federalist #47} ““There is no liberty, if the power of judging be not separated from thelegislative and executive powers.””

Criticism of Constitutional reform: Separation of Powers


-inability to get prompt decisive action;}

-interest groups dominate Congress;}

president is unable to pursue policies in national best interest;}

-policies advocated by President end up watered down &ineffective;}

-bureaucracy is also unduly influenced by special interests &overly influenced by Congress

Constitutional Change: Slow down the govt!It does too much!

Democracy can have unintended results if govt caters to specialinterests rather than to long term values & goals

Easy to add responsibilities; hard to take away

Constitutional change proposals

-Limit $ of taxes collected each year

-Require balanced budget (or 10 year rolling balanced budget)} Supermajority could override limits in case of emergency} Problems with off-budget expenditures}

-Line item veto} Many states where governor has line item veto, but differentresponsibilities, etc.}

-Limit authority of federal courts} Courts hold a role as the protector of individual rights


} Direct election of President (no more electoral college)} Expansion of Congress to provide 1 representative per 50,000 people} To ensure voting rights for Washington D.C. in the Presidential election (as well as other territories)} To allow voting rights for D.C. & other territory representatives} To ensure reproductive rights of women} To allow non-natural born citizens to become President if they have been a citizen for 20 years} To specifically allow Congress to regulate the amount of personal funds a candidate to public office canexpend in a campaign} To make the filibuster in the Senate a part of the Constitution} Providing a right to work, for equal pay for equal work, the right to organize, and the right to favorablework conditions} To specifically permit prayer at school meetings and ceremonies} To prohibit gay marriage} To lower the age restriction on Representatives and Senators from 30 and 25 respectively to 21} To ensure that citizens of U.S. territories and commonwealths can vote in presidential elections} To guarantee the right to use the word "God" in the Pledge of Allegiance and the national motto} To repeal the 22nd Amendment (term limits)

Equal Rights Amendment

Section 1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied orabridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.}

Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriatelegislation, the provisions of this article.}

Section 3. This amendment shall take effect two years after the date ofratification.

Equal Rights Amendment

Introduced 1923; Passed Congress 1972} Ratified by 35 states (3 short of required 38)} Expired 1982; Introduced in Every Congress Since


___ government was “the best system that theAmericans could possibly think of”


-½ of Bundestag (640 delegates) allocated by geographical area}

-½ by party (multi-party)}

-The parties elect a chancellor}

-Also a lower house Bundesrat that is based on geographicalarea / semi-proportional, similar to Senate; chosen/appointedby state legislatures; each state must vote as bloc. Each stategets between 3 & 6 representatives.} Talk of replacing this with directly elected representatives


The 1787 Constitution didn’t really address ___

(Primarily addressed the limits & tradeoff between freedom & order} Political and economic life was restricted to white men & largelylandowners )


Equality was included through the ___(over 100 years later)

Freeing the slaves}

National Income Tax}

Guaranteeing blacks / other races right to vote}

Guaranteeing women the right to vote}

Prohibiting the poll tax}

Lowering the voting age to 18}

Allowing D.C. residents to vote for President


The quality of being supreme in power or authority.


The division of power between a central government and regional governments

dual federalism

A view holding that the Constitution is a compact among sovereign states, so that the powers of the national government and the states are clearly differentiated.

states' rights

The idea that all rights not specifically conferred on the national government by the U.S. Constitution are reserved to the states.

implied powers

Those powers that Congress needs to execute its enumerated powers.

cooperative federalism

A view holding that the Consti- tution is an agreement among people who are citizens of both state and nation, so there is much overlap between state powers and national powers

elastic clause

The last clause in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which gives Congress the means to execute its enumerated powers. This clause is the basis for Congress’s implied powers. Also called the necessary and proper clause.

commerce clause

The third clause of Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which gives Congress the power to regulate commerce among the states.


Money provided by one level of government to another level of government, or sometimes to a non-governmental organization, to be spent for a given purpose.

categorical grants

Grants-in-aid targeted for a specific purpose by either formula or project.

block grants

Grants-in-aid awarded for general purposes, allowing the recipient great discretion in spending the grant money.

formula grants

Grants-in-aid distributed according to a particular set of rules, called a formula, that specifies who is eligible for the grants and how much each eligible applicant will receive.

competitive grants

Grants-in-aid awarded on the basis of applications submitted by prospective recipients who are eligible to compete forthe grant.


The power of Congress to enact laws by which the national government assumes total or partial responsibility for a state government function.


A requirement that a state or local government undertake an activity or provide a service, in keeping with minimum national standards.


A requirement prohibiting a state or local government from exercising a certain power.

coercive federalism

A view holding that the national government may impose its policy preferences on the states through regulations in the form of mandates and restraints.


The process of redrawing boundaries for electoral juris- dictions to reflect changes in population.

intergovernmental system

The collection of governments made up of national, state, and local units of government.

municipal governments

The government units that administer a city or town.

county governments

The government units that administer a county.

school districts

The government units that administer elementary and secondary schools and programs.

special districts

Government units created to perform particular functions, especially when those functions are best performed across jurisdictional boundaries.

home rule

The right to enact and enforce legislation locally.


Division of responsibilities between states and national government is mandated by ___

local, provincial, municipal, county levels of government.

federalism is not limited to just federal and state; but also ___

Germany, India, Spain, Australia, Canada, Switzerland

also have federal structures as well

UK, France, Italy, Sweden

do not have federal structures

self-government and local control

American federalism is defined by ideal of _____


Money flows from ____ to the states in American federalism


____ operate their own programs in American federalism

states are laboratories for policy experimentation.

Political flexibility allows policies to align with local conditions.

Preserves individual liberty.

Positive views of federalism (Madison, Elazar; Brandeis)

American states are “parasitic & poisonous” – Harold Laski

“the main effect of federalism since the Civil War has been toperpetuate racism” -William H. Riker

Not in my backyard politics

Duplication and inefficiency

Delay of Civil Rights legislation by Southern senators

Negative views of Federalism

John Marshall

Chief Justice _____ solidified supremacy of nationalgovernment

McCulloch vs. Maryland 1819 – Fed govt could establish a bank (“Necessary & proper clause” ), States could not tax federal government, or property of the federalgovt – Supremacy of Federal Govt


States wanted the right to nullify acts of Fed Govt (supported byJefferson & Madison)

Civil War

_____ settled supremacy of National Govt, later confirmedby Supreme Court

Dual Federalism

Govt rules by enumerated powers only (no impliedpowers)

-“layer cake”

-Limited set of constitutional powers

-Each level is sovereign in its own sphere

-Relationship is characterized by tension

Commerce Clause of Constitution

-Fed govt controlled “interstate commerce”

-States could regulate “intrastate commerce”

-Became hard to sustain

Cooperative Federalism

Overlap of responsibilities between federal government &states

-Joint responsibility for problems & solutions} “marble cake”

The States Strike Back (mostly conservative)

U.S. vs. Lopez (1995) – Court held Congress could not prohibit guns in schoolzones

The States Strike Back

Court overturned Violence Against Women Act 1994 (2000)

The States Strike Back

Prinz vs. United States (1997) invalidated requirement for background checks onguns (violation of 10th amendment – requiring states to carry out federal program)

The States Strike Back

1999 – Alden v. Maine – State employees could not sue to force state compliance with federal fair-labor laws (11th amendment – states protected from lawsuits bycitizens of other states & foreign nations)

The States Strike Back

2002 – Federal Maritime Commission v. South Carolina Ports Authority - further expanded states’ sovereign immunity from private lawsuits

The States Strike Back

Scalia, Thomas consistently argue that “dual sovereignty” exists and that there is aclear delimitation of powers} Nearly all of these cases were decided 5-4… demonstrates originalist shift in Supreme Court with 1980s appointments


___can still do pretty much what it wants, as long as it does not gut staterights or “commandeer” state resources

Or sometimes, it can trample as it pleases

Bush vs. Gore

Overturning Texas law banning homosexual behavior

Death penalty standards

Categorical Grants

Specific purposes

Revenue sharing

% of money to states

Block Grants

More general purpose

Earmarks – Pork

Types of Grants


-Traditionally had few strings attached

-Politically popular by governors “free money”

-“fair-share” formula – skews grants to low-populations

-Shift towards national needs over state needs

-Lobbying by states for federal dollars

Centralization vs. Devolution / Decentralization

Feds can raise money

Social welfare burdens

States originally seen as completely inept

The weak links in the policy system

Ineffective, indecisive, inattentive



Increase in block grants to ___s

Increasing professionalization of ___ governments


___ fear that the state government won’t protectminority rights, citizens from corporations, etc.

Diversity of interests will protect citizens interests in nationalgovernment


___ argue that state governments allow for adiversity of policy options to address diverse problems

Tiebout sorting – citizens can move to states that representtheir preferences


_____ – Congress enacts laws where nationalgovernment assumes complete or partial responsibility of stategovernment function


___ – States must meet minimum standards – environmental, welfare, etc.


___ – States cannot exercise powers} Internet taxation


___ – Federal government transfers power to states} In practice much of funding comes from Washington, delivered tostates who have significant autonomy in governing

Municipal & local governments

County governments

Water districts

School districts

Transportation districts

Additional levels of government

Law Enforcement

Environmental Quality

Intergovernmental responsibilities

Beyond national –

International treaties

Constitutional authority

Division of state & national responsibilities

Supragovernmental Issues


our economy is highly ____; it's difficult to define interstate or intrastate commerce


dual federalism is hard to ___; e.g.) you have water pollution issue due to flowing from other states but it's difficult to enforce laws to all states

cooperative federalism

GT gets funding from states, fed, and city of ATL


power of congress to enact laws by which the national government assumes total or partial responsibility for a state government function

implied powers

those powers that congress needs to execute its enumerated powers

the federal government cannot put a "gun to the head" of a state government (rejecting Coercive Federalism)

Constitutional argument that would protect sanctuary cities rely which recently affirmed Constitutional principle?

States can experiment with different policy solutions for public problems

Justice Louis Brandeis, summoning his inner James Madison, argued for "laboratories of democracy" which argues that:

at odds

Very often our government is ___ with public opinion

expansion of govt programs &less taxes

Wide majorities favor both expansion of ____


Vast majority of America knows very ___aboutgovernment and how it affects them


Public opinion is often uninformed, unstable, and isdependent on how _____ are asked

random sampling

Using _______, polls can accurately gaugeopinions of entire society

For a population over 500k, pollsters need to call about15k people & reach about 1,065 to be within 3%, 95% ofthe time

For a population over 500k, pollsters need to call about15k people & reach about 1,065 to be within 3%, 95% ofthe time

non-scientific polls, low sample #s, lowresponse rates,

Be wary of ___,___,____, etc.

forces outside our control

the majority of US believe that success in life is not determined by

freedom to pursue life's goals without interference

the majority of US favor ____ over state's guarantee of basic needs for all


CEO pay compared to workers has been ____


The world generally opposes NSA's spying actions but ___ is still generally favored

global median

Latin America, Africa generally are concerned of climate change while China and Us are not, scoring below the ____ of 54%


US generally ____ enforcement of environmental regulation


US generally ____ pollution of drinkingwater


US generally ____ about the loss of naturalhabitat for wildlife


US generally ___ legalization of gay/lesbian relations and marriage


of US ___ are prolife


___ of US Christians consider themselves Christians over their nationality compared to significantly lower identity of other nations

food stamps, foreign aid

Medicare, social security, federal school aid, unemployment benefits, defense spending, environmental protection are considered very important in US while ____ and ____ are not


___ of us believes that religion is very important and that it is necessary to believe in God to be moral


importance of religiosity of one's life significantly ____ from 1968 to 1976


lesser people are proud to be ___ (half)

climate change

more people in us worry about


more people are prioritizing ___ over economic growth

big government

more people believe that ____ will be the biggest threat facing the country over big labor and big business

federally funded healthcare program providing insurance for all Americans

more people favor replacing ACA with a _____


people feel more negative about affordable care act when the wording of it is replaced with ____


Obama's approval ratings had been


whether people care or not


how deeply people care about something

ex: environment, foreign policy, economy, abortion...etc


some opinions are highly stable while some are ____




background and individual characteristics

____ and ___s have greatinfluence on opinion.


greatest influence on opinion is ____


Younger generations are less ___ than parents


all ages have become less ___ over time (at least self-classification)

political socialization

religion, gender, schooling, social class, race

individual choice

younger generation generally believes in more _____ such as gay rights, school vouchers, social security privatization although not necessarily in favor of smaller govt


younger generation favor _____ over voting as civic duty


schooling is an ____ at elementary level that imposes acceptance of authority and idealized notion of American Government


College in contrast, attempts to get you to __ critically the government institutions and values


college used to be politically ____ -less so now


____ communities exert strong pressures on members


____ offer opportunity to introduce ideas that run counter to community values- Americanization of immigrants and melting pot


voting highly related to occupation


social class/occupation in u.s. much less related to voting than in EU


more likely to vote democrat


more likely to vote for republican


Jews - liberal

Catholics - moderate

Protestants and Mormons -


mixed, trending liberal that are the largest growing minority

Regional differences

____ in politics are largely between North vs South and Urban vs Rural


Election of Obama was the first Democrat elected in 2 way election since 1940 without carrying part of the South


Expanding use of govt


limiting use of govt (these generalizations are inconsistent though)


govt intervention in markets; not in personal life(Obama) (23%)


govt intervention in markets & personallife (Bush; Trump (?)) (30%)


no govt intervention in markets or personallife (Ron Paul – sort of) (15%)


govt intervention in personal life, not inmarkets (Paul Ryan) (32%)


Increase in ____ leads to identification as liberal orconservative


___ often triumph over fact (truthiness) -False memories to support beliefs

Collective opinion

____ can be stable & meaningful – randomignorance


___ in america has been decreasing (church, school, newspaper, business, congress,) except military


people ___ vote in their own self interest

middle class

people perceive themselves as ___ while also perceiving themselves as being harmed by tax increases on rich; estate taxes on rich, etc


people are ___ about Obamacare despite it saving their life (rural working class)


are related to political behavior, social cooperation (individualistic vs communal),


___, republicans are much more risk-accepting while Democrats are risk-averse

personality type

there are evidences of correlation between personality type and political behavior:

black and white

conservatives view things more ___ while liberals see shades of gray


conservatives are more ___ while liberals are not

conservatives are more conscientious

conservatives are more conscientious while liberals are messier or don't care

fight or flight

conservatives have more developed _____ response, and more suspicious of outsiders while liberals are more trusting


political self- identification (cons or lib) is a ___ issue


which one of these descriptors relates to a belief or opinion that remains consistent over time

how opinions affect vote

Intensity in the context of public opinion is defined as?

The repeal and replacement of the ACA

Which of the following is an example of a topic that would be currently considered highly salient to most Americans?

That there may be a genetic disposition towards political behavior

Studies using the differences between fraternal and identical twins, and differences in political ideology concluded what?

is influenced by a variety of factors, including genetic makeup, culture, and income

According to Janda, Berry and Goldman, public opinion __


media in ___ has great amount of freedom (libel laws, leaks to the press, freedom of information act)

“Gazette of the United States

partisan newspaper for federalists

“National Gazette”


“Washington Globe” “National Intelligencer”

Publicly sponsored newspapers

The Popular Press / print journalism

High speed rotary press and telegraph began and Associated Press began in 1848, newspapers were democratized, and attraction of readership were made through editorial system, exposes, sensationalism and violence

Opinion Magazines

“yellow journalism” & belief in progressive movement(late 1800s to early 1900s)

The Nation; Atlantic Monthly; Harper’s

Provided means for developing national constituency for“trustbusting” or regulating business, purifying municipalpolitics, & reforming civil service


___ => investigative reporting

Electronic Journalism

Radio – 1920s; TV – 1940s

-Major shift in how news was gathered & disseminated}

-Allowed politicians to speak directly to people}

-Gave editors increased power re: what they showed

Fairness doctrine (ended 2011)

Required broadcasters using public airwaves to present “bothsides” of issue

The internet

Remarkable transformation in American journalism

Over 70% of Americans on the internet

Development of blogs

Fragmentation of journalism & content

Corporations & Media

-Decline in newspapers & newspaper holding companies

-Increasing concentration of private ownership ofmainstream media

Roles of the national press



Watchdog / Fact Checker


there is little regulation on


____ – state laws; fed govt does not protect____ of sources

Does protect newspaper offices from being searched


____ regulates broadcast media

“Fairness doctrine” (ended in 1987)

Journalists were supposed to be balanced and non-partisan - Paved way for opinionated news

equal time rule

FCC specifies that U.S. radio and television broadcast stations must provide an equivalent opportunity to any opposing political candidates who request it.


FCC has largely deregulated ____, allowing larger corporations

broadcast ownership rules/regulations

FCC used to have _____ (largely deregulated since 96')

Consequences of private ownership

profit motive - entertainment over news, sensationalism and scandal, market driven journalism over public service, infotainment

Walt Disney, Viacom, Comcast, Newscorp

media is owned by___ (no more GE)


some studies support that media is more liberal than general public through ____

less clear

media bias is ___ now especially on specific policy issues, and with the dominance of FOX


radio talkshows are mostly ____

equal time

__ philosophy may have very negative consequences for debate and society such as on debate on climate change

routine issues

beliefs of the national media are hard to be identified from news reports especially in


top 10 newspapers on economic news have more positive ___ when Democrats in power

New York Times

supports environmental issues, gay rights, gun control, and abortion rights


specifically has a conservative bias, does not consider its major journalists newscasters, and has repeatedly falsified video to support a conservative view


whether or not what the media writes or says influence how readers and viewers think is even ___ to answer


news attitudes are likely to reflect ideologies of ____ (Selective attention)


Some studies suggest that editorial staffs support candidateswhich the newspaper has more ____ stories on; public ismore likely to think favorably about them

2004 study of climate change

we have clear evidence that media treatment impacts public opinion of specific issues - __

Fox News article (Picker (NBER) – 2006)

And we have clear evidence that there is a relationshipbetween media coverage and voting - ____

net neutrality

all data packets on the internet should be impartially delivered to consumers regardless of their content, destination, source or cost of service. (government interference on internet market)

SOPA – stop online piracy act

___ would have made anyone who illegally downloaded anything a felon and make websites with pirated materials illegal (died in congress with veto from Obama)

press corps

Trump suggested he will kick the ___ out from the white house and reduce access to certain news organizations, and bypass the press to speak directly to people

"fact checkers"

bypassing ____ allows trump to engage in alternative facts (lies)

profit seeking, social experimentation, Russia

fake news came from


media is

"talking heads"

give legitimacy to both sides, regardless of facts


The ____ of the media; the advent of ideological news; has been afactor in polarization of our country


media is ___ in science and economics

alternative facts and fake news

_____ provide a challenge for democracy

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Which organization regulates the content of the public airwaves, as well as most media ownership rules (with the exception of anti-trust)?

Names of prominent politicians and whether or not they are labeled as conservative or liberal

THe study on media bias (from media bias articls 1 and 2) uses which of the following to analyze labeling of political views?

The early introduction of FOX news in some counties influenced changes in voting patterns more than in other counties, where FOX news was not introduced

How did the study on media bias conclude that FOX influenced the election in 2000?

Outperformed traditional media

As measured by FACEBOOK activity leading up to the 2016 election, fake news..

Fact-checking/watchdog journalism

When president TRUMP communicates via Twitter, he bypasses which of the media's contributions to democracy?

Low compared to other countries

Voting participation in the US is ___

compulsory voting

forces you to vote otherwise be fined or something

taxpayers & property owners

During Andrew Jackson only white male ___ could vote


women could vote after ___ and blacks after 1965


Chinese couldn't vote until


Alines could vote UNTIL

15th Amendment

prohibits states from denying right to vote on basis of race /color / previous servitude

1944 Smith v. Allwright

_____– Blacks can vote in primaries

Voting Rights Act 1965

____– prohibited discriminatory voting tests

Prohibits efforts that are both discriminatory in nature, and discriminatory in outcome

Established pre-clearance requirements for states with history of surpressing the vote

1966 – Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections

___- State poll taxes are unconstitutional

1869 Wyoming; 1893 Colorado

1800s women could not vote, starting to make noise about it

1884 Equal Rights Party

____ – first women candidate for president

1896 – 1918

12 States gave women right to vote

} 1929

19th Amendment ratified (women's vote)


First country to allow large mass of voting population


In US Women’s ___came earlier (1971 – Switzerland!?)} Still not enfranchised in Arab world


Initially ___ decided who could vote, & for what offices


___gradually eroded states rights, through law &constitutional amendment

1842 congressional districts

____; even year elections; Tuesday afterfirst Monday in November

15th amendment

____ only prohibited preventing blacks to vote b/cof race (according to Supreme Court)

Literacy tests

Poll tax

Grandfather clauses to include whites

Perhaps a false pretense

Tradeoff between voter fraud & turnout?


Highly ____ nature indicates high stakes of consequences ofvoting

Obvious solution: get politicians out of voting process! Non-partisan voting boards & election commissions

Crosscheck program

Systematically removes voters from rolls based on badinformation, First name / last name match} - supposed to also match SSN, birth date, and middle name, but spotchecks reveal that 10s of thousands have been removed from rollsimproperly

Voting as civic engagement; non-market good Voting due to social pressure

Why do people vote?

Freedom & Equality

_____ strongly coincide with increased voting participation


Increased ____can upset traditional order


Progressive movement trusted ___ to make policydecisions

Issue voting

Abortion, gay marriage, school prayer, etc.

Prospective voting

Information about issues & candidates

Retrospective voting

How things are going, and who’s in control

Ronald Reagan

Strong relationship between voting for incumbent (president), and recent economicgrowth

The campaign

Party loyalties

How candidates handle pressure

Character & core values of candidates

Single issue voters, especially in primary

political organization in public sector, not government

Civic organizations

Church & charitable activities

Social Movements

Correspondence with legislators

Giving money to a candidate

Member of political organization


Americans, on average, are more involved politically thanEuropeans} Americans exaggerate how much they ___} Young, poor, uneducated & minorities more likely to exaggerate

Conventional = routine behavior

-Campaigning, calling elected officials, voting, etc. some types of protesting

-Supportive Behavior = demonstrating patriotism

-Influencing behavior = try to fulfill objectives from government


Influencing behavior = try to fulfill objectives from government

Complaining to city hall

Contracting with local services

Much is non-political; high consensus; unrelated to voting behavior

Unconventional behavior

-More dramatic protesting, sit-ins, terrorism

-More likely when there is a clear group identity

-Selma Alabama – Montgomery Alabama march

-Peaceful anti-Vietnam demonstrations

-Women’s March!

Somewhat arbitrary designation

-Determined by values

-Varies nationally

-Other countries – our unconventional is conventional (France)


Abortion - Discouraged individual doctors from abortion; hasn’t effected laws

Civil Rights

Right to vote for 18 - 21

Tea Party Protest, Occupy Wall St, Women's March

Does unconventional participation work?

Electronic Participation

Recovery.gov} Federal Register} Thomas.gov / govtrack.us} Center for Responsive Politics

Low initiative vs. High initiative

Wearing a flag pin vs. Volunteering time as electionmonitor

Caring about political issues vs. Protesting &demonstrating

Voting vs. Campaigning for a cause

Registering to vote vs. casting a vote

low initiative

___ - less likely to get results

Using the Courts

High initiative

Also requires financial resources / legal knowledge} Class Action Law-suits

Brown v. Board (1954)