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104 Cards in this Set

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Bedouins

Arab nomads, means "desert dweller" in Arabic, often known for their military prowess and fierce independence

suq

An Arab marketplace or bazaar

Shia

"party of Ali", minority, found mostly in Iraq, Iran, Pakistan and India


Largest branch is Twelver Shia

Sunni

supporters of Abu Baker, the father in law of Muhammad, majority, "orthodox" Islam

wajh

group honor, "face"

mosque

Muslim place of worship, center of religious but also political life due to Islam's ties between religion and civic life

shahada

profession of faith in Islam, Allah is the only god and Muhammad is his profit, 1st Pillar of Islam

Kaaba

black cube building at the center of the mosque at Mecca, formerly housed idols of various tribes in pre-Islamic times

imam

Islamic leadership position, most commonly the leader of worship at a mosque for Sunnis; in Shia Imam is a leader anointed by God and free of sin

5 Pillars of Islam

1) shahada: profession of faith


2) salat: prayer 5 times a day


3) zakat: alms-giving


4) swam: fasting during Ramadan


5) hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca



zakat

almsgiving, 3rd Pillar of Islam

sadaqa

voluntary zakat

Ramadan

holy month of fasting, introspection and prayer


Based on a lunar calendar so the month moves

hajj (hajji)

pilgrimage to Mecca, 5th Pillar of Islam

Koran

sacred text of Islam, the literal word of God as revealed to his final prophet Muhammad

suras

chapters in the Koran

hadith

collection of sayings and practices attributed to the prophet; each has a lineage of how the information was passed on from Muhammad, so shorter and more direct lineages are considered to be more reliable hadith

Sharia

law of Islam guiding moral conduct and most every situation faced in life, based on the Koran and hadith

ulema

Islamic scholars taught to interpret Sharia law; often they are imams.


They are not priests (intermediaries between God and the people) but legal scholars, taught in madrasahs

umma

Arabic word meaning "nation" or "community", the Islamic nation or the community of all Islamic people; the word both means "nation" in Arabic and more specifically all Muslims in the context of Islam

Quraish

Muhammad's tribe, controllers of Mecca and the Kaaba

hijra

the migration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib (later renamed by him to Medina) in 622

jihad

Islamic term referring to the religious duty of Muslims to maintain the religion. In Arabic, the word jihād is a noun meaning "to strive, to apply oneself, to struggle, to persevere."


Has been interpreted as a holy war demanding direct violent action, and in Suffi (mystical) Islam as the inner quest for enlightenment

djimmi

literally "protected person" in Arabic, non-Muslim citizens of an Islamic state, protected so long as they pay the "jizya" tax

caliphs

a person considered a political and religious successor of Muhammad and leader of the entire Muslim community

Raddah Wars

Wars of Apostasy, led by 1st Caliph Abu Bakr against rebel Arabian tribes after death of Muhammad

Rashidun Empire

the collective term comprising the first four caliphs—the "Rightly Guided" or Rashidun caliphs

Umayyad Empire

the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad


Centered around Umayyad family dynasty which first came to power under 3rd Caliph Uthman, but was founded after the 1st Muslim Civil War by Muawiya

Abbasid Empire

the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty descended from Muhammad's youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name

Ottoman Empire

4th major caliphate, Turkey, founded in 129 by Osman 1, overthrew the Byzantines and took Constantinople

ghazis

Muslim warrior or champion, honorific title; specifically one who fights for the religion

Janissaries

a member of the Turkish infantry forming the Sultan's guard between the 14th and 19th centuries.

millets

djimmi courts under the Ottoman empire;


a separate legal court pertaining to "personal law" under which a confessional community (a group abiding by the laws of Muslim Sharia, Christian Canon law, or Jewish Halakha) was allowed to rule itself under its own system

Mameluks

slave warriors

Sufism

the inner mystical dimension of Islam, divided into tariqhs

madrasah

Islamic schools to teach ulema scholars

fiqh

different schools of thought on Sharia

waqf

an Islamic endowment, often supporting madrasahs

Mahdi

The prophesied redeemer in Islam



For Sunnis, the Mahdi is Muhammad's successor who is yet to come. For most Shia Muslims, the Mahdi was born but disappeared and will remain hidden from humanity until he reappears to bring justice to the world, a doctrine known as the Occultation. For Twelver Shia, this "hidden Imam" isMuhammad al-Mahdi, the Twelfth Imam.

Ismailis

a

Muharram

a

tariqh

a

pirs

a

Qarmatians

a

Muwahhidum (Wahhabi)

a

Tanzimat

a

Muhammad Ali

a

fellahin

a

Maronites

a

Druze

a

Sanussi

a

Najd

a

mujtahids

a

al-Afghani

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Ibn Kaldouhn

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Four Rightly Guided Caliphs

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Abu Bakr

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Umar

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Uthman

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Ali

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salah

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sawm

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hudna

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Jahliya

a

jizya

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Fatamids

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Ayubid

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Andalusia (Moors)

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Safavid

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Afsharid

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Zand

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Qajar

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Pahlavi

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Max Vaber's pyramid

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3 approaches to understanding colonialism

modernization, Marxist, dependency



McMahon-Hussein Correspondence

a

Balfour Declaration

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Sykes-Picot Agreement

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Irgun

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LEHI

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Hamas

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Zionism

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ashkenazi

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sephardic

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Aliya

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Peel Commission

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British mandatory Palestine

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UN Partition Plan

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Arab-Israeli War

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Suez War

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Six Day War

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War of Attrition

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Fatah

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Yasser Arafat

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Palestinian Liberation Organization

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Black September

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YomKippur War / Ramadan War / October War

a

1st Intifada

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Oslo Accords

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Yitzhak Rabin

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2nd Intifada

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Tabaa negotiations

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Ariel Sharon

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order of major Muslim empires

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