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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are some features and function of mesoderm? 3 of them.
-allow animals to be more mobile and more complex than diploblastic animals

-separates the gut and body walls, allowing these body layers to evolve independantly

-allows organism to have an internal hydrostatic skeleton
What does mesoderm develope into? 6 of them.
-connective tissue
-circulatory system
-reproductive system
-excretory system
What are some characteristics of Flatworms? 7 of them
-belong to the Class Turbellaria
-free living forms
-body is dorsoventrally flattened
-movement is unidirectional
-bilaterally symmetrical
-acoelomate animals (ie: rather solid body plan)
-lack a circulatory system therefore are small in size
What is the Dorsal side?
-the top side
What is the ventral side?
-the bottom side
What is the anterior end?
-the head
what is the posterior end?
-the ass
What is cephalization?
-is the increasing differentiation and importance of the anterior end of the body

**Flatworms exhibit cephalization**
How do Flatworms move?
-by slight muscular waves and action of cilia
-secretes mucous from glands on ventral surface and glides over it
What does the nervous system of a Flatworm consist of?
-2 longitudinal nerve trunks
-transverse nerves
What is a taxis?
-reflexive behaviour patterns involving the response of the entire organism to a specific stimulus

**Positive response=towards the stim**
**Negative response=away from stim**
Responds to:
How do flatworms feed?
-has a retractable/protrusible pharynx
-pharynx sucks in good particles by strong upmping action of its muscles
What is the digestive tract of flatworms composed of?
-Anterior Gastrovascular Trunks: run to the head region

-Posterior Gastrovascular Trunks: forks around the pharyngeal chamber. Diverticulae are little side pockets used to increase surface area.

-no anus

**Digestion is intra & extracellular**
What are rhabdites?
-cells found in the dorsal epidermis of flatworms.
-decomposes to form the mucous discharge used for movement
-dark stained, rodshaped bodies among the epidermal cells
What are dorsoventral muscels?
-isolated fibers which may be seen connecting the upper and lower surfaces of the body obliquely
-attached to the basement membrane
What are oblique muscles?
-found between circular and longitudinal muscles
-allows the flatworm to twist it's body rightside when upside down
What 2 cells are found in the gastrodermis of flatworms?
1)Simple columnar cells: very numerous. Phagocytose broken down nutrients

2)Secretory goblet cells: have enzymatic secretory granules which provide the enzymes which digest fats in the food extracellularly
What is connective tissue? Give a relavant example to Flatworms
-Connective tissue is a tissue in which cell products, such as fluids and nonliving fibers, prdominate over the cells that produce them
-a sort of packing material around the digestive, nervous, reproductive and excretory systems

**Eg: Parenchyma cells and the spaces between them, the lymph**
In flatworms what do ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm develope into?
1)ectoderm = epithelium

2)endoderm = gastrodermis

3)mesoderm = forms the bulk of the body between the epiderm and gastroderm
What are 'Flame Cells'?
-an osmoregulatory cell (makes piss)
-beating cilia drives fluid down the tubule causing the fluid pressure in the tubul to be less than the surrounding tissue. Therefor water moves into the tubule, eventually becoming piss

**Flame cells and their tubes are called protonephridia**
What are some features of the Flatworm's pharynx?
-located in the pharyngeal chamber
-epidermis on the outside of the pharynx is ciliated
-consists of longitudinal, circular, and radial muscles
-region between the muscle layers is taken up by 2 glandular tissues separated by a nerve plexus
-pharynx is an organ because made of several different tissues
What are some pros and cons to being parastic?
-body not strained to metabolically keep up with the energy demands of a locomotor system
-oxygen demands are low therefore excretory problems are reduced

-specific hosts must be located by each generation
-parasite must be able to maintain itself in the host long enough to reproduce
What are some characteristics of Opisthorchis sinensis?
-AKA Chinese Liver Fluke
-belongs to class Trematoda (often called flukes)
-infects lots of asians because of eating habits and lifestyle
What is the function of seminal vesicle
in Opisthorchis sinensis?
-male organ
-stores sperm produced by the worm
What is the function of seminal receptacle
in Opisthorchis sinensis?
-female organ
-stores sperm during mating
What is the function of Mehlis's Gland
in Opisthorchis sinensis?
-lubricates the egg so that movement through oviduct is easier
What is the function of Laurer's canal
in Opisthorchis sinensis?
-no real function
-thought to be a vestigial vagina
What is the function of yolk glands/vitellarie in Opisthorchis sinensis?
-supply yolk and shell material for the developing eggs
Go over the life-cycle of Opisthorchis sinensis. Start with the eggs being passed out in feces. Approx 8 steps
1)eggs are ingested by a snaile and a MIRACIDIUM larva hatches out of the egg, boring through the gut wall and settling in the haemocoel

2)epithelium of miracidium is shed forming a sporocyst

3)sporocyst feeds and grows. Tissues reorganize into several REDIAE (miniature flukes with a mouth and digestive tract

4)Rediae excape from the dead sporocyst and grow and dived to produce a second generatioin of rediae

5)The second generation of rediae grow and divide to form CERCARIEAE.
1 sporocyst can form 100's of cercarieae

6)Cercariae leave the snail and swim freely to search for an INTERMEDIATE HOST (a fish

7)They penetrate the fish skin, encyst in the muscles becoming METACERCARIAE

8)If a FINAL HOST(ie: man) eats the fish, metacercariae are released and burrow into the gut, moving to the bile ducts where they feed on liver tissue
What are the 2 orders that flukes are divided into?
1)Order Digenea: has 2 or more hosts. Usually ENDOPARASITES

2)Order Monogea: has only 1 host. Usually ECTOPARASITES
What class does Taenia pisiformis belong to?
-belongs to the Class Cestoda, the tapeworms
-AKA Dog tapeworms

**They are hermaphrodites**
What is the function of scolex
in Taenia pisiformis?
-has holdfasts for anchoring
-proglottids are formed in the neck region by strobilation
-basically the head but lacks a mouth
How does Taenia pisiformis feed?
-lacks a mouth therefore has to absorb the nutrients through the their body wall from the host's gut contents
What is the function of a cirrus sac
in Taenia pisiformis?
-encloses the penis
What is a gravid proglottid?
-a proglottid that has been taken over by the egg packed uterus

***these proglottids detach from the body, if ingested, the body breaks down, releasing shitloads of eggs***
What are onchospheres?
-AKA hexacanth larva
-early larva of Taenia pisiformis
-has 6 hooks
What is the function of shell gland
in Taenia pisiformis?
-involved in the formation of the resistant egg shell
Go over the life cycle of Taenia pisiforms. Start with rabbits eating 'egg-poop' infected grass. Approx 7 steps.
1)Rabbit gets infected, eggs develope into onchospheres

2)onchosphere hooks it's way to the rabbits liver and bores in

3)Developes into an inverted CYSTICERCUS (has a bladder and inverted scolex)

4)Dog eats rabbit and gets infected

5)CYSTICERCUS everts and bladder detaches from the scolex

6)scolex undergoes strobilation

7)eventually produces gravid proglottids which get pooped out. Cycle starts again.
Draw and label the nervous system of Dugesia.
Did you get:
-sensory lobe
-nerve cord
Draw and label a cross section of Dugesia.
Did you get:
-circular muscle
-longitudinal muscle
-oblique muscle
-dorsal ventral muscles
-basement membrane
-gsatrovascular diverticulae
-gastrovascular trunk
Draw a zoom up of a pharynx cross section.
Did you get:
-outer longitudinal muscle
-outer circular muscle
-cyanophilous gland
-radial muscle
-main nerve plexus
-eosinophilous gland
-inner nerve plexus
-insunk epithelium nuclei
-inner longitudinal muscle
-inner circular muscle
-inner in sunk epithelium
Draw and label Dugesia. External and digestive tract
Did you get:
-black light screen
-pharyngeal chamber
-pigment cells
-anterior trunk
-gastrovascular digestive tract
-posterior gastrovascular trunks
What are some characteristics to the Class Turbellaria?
-free living forms
-unidirectional movement
-bilaterally symmetrical
-nervous system made of brain, 2 longitudinal nerve trunks, and transverse nerves
-dorsal/ventrally flattened
Draw and label Opisthorchis sinensis.
*AKA Chinese liver fluke

Did you get:
-oral sucker
-male pore
-female pore
-common genital pore
-ventral sucker
-seminal vesicle
-yolk glands
-vitelline duct
-vasa differentia
-mehlis gland
-laurer's canal
-seminal receptacle
-excretory bladder
-excretory pore
-egg on way to ovary
Describe the fertilization process in opisthorchis sinensis.
-sperm loads up in the seminal receptacle
-gets there via the uterus
-once ready, eggs and sperm are released in the oviduct where the eggs are fertilized
-yolk glands pump yolk into the egg and puts a shell on it
-gets to the mehlis gland where it is lubricated
-gets loaded up in the uterus
List some characteristics of the Class Cestoda.
-isn't just found in dogs
-made of repititious units called proglottids
-knoblike head is called a Scolex
-no mouth or real digestive system
Draw and label Taenia pisiformis.
Did you get:
-little hooks
-necklike constriction
-excretory canal
-cirrus sac
-genital pore
-seminal receptacle
-shell gland
-yolk gland
-nerve cord
-gravid proglottid
What are the 3 classes studied in the Phylum Platyhelminthes?
1)Class Turbellaria - Flatworms

2)Trematoda - Flukes

3)Cestoda - Tapeworms