Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/96

Click to flip

96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Plants make energy by performing ____________

Photosynthesis

Green pigment in chloroplasts that captures energy from sunlight

Chlorophyll

Plants grow and stand ____________

Upright

Support and protect plant cells and keep plants in their upright position

Cell walls

Lack specialized conducting tissues and true roots, stems, and leaves

Nonvascular plants

Have conducting tissues for water and nutrients.

Vascular Plants

Tissue through which water travels in a vascular plant up from the roots

Xylem

Tissue through which sugars travel in a vascular plant down from the leaves

Phloem

Plants that reproduce using spores

Seedless plants

Woody, vascular seed plant whose seeds are not enclosed by an ovary or fruit; cone-bearing;


usually have needles

Gymnosperm

Vascular plants are divided into _____ groups

Three

A flowering plat that produces seeds within a fruit

Angiosperm

Supply plants with water and minerals through the xylem

Roots

Hold plants securely in the soil

Roots

Store surplus food made during photosynthesis

Roots

Roots are covered with ____________ that increase surface area of roots for more absorption

Roots Hairs

Tip of root where growth occurs

Root Cap

One main root grows downward and small roots branch off of the taproot; usually reaches deep underground

Taproot system

_____ kinds of root systems

Two

Several roots, about the same size, spread out from the base of the plant’s stem; usually gets water from close to the soil surface

Fibrous system

Support the plant

Stems

Hold up flowers

Stems

Contain xylem and phloem to transport materials between the root and shoot systems

Stems

Sometimes store materials, like water

Stems

Soft, thin, and flexible

Herbaceous Stems

Rigid stems made of wood and bark

Woody Stems

Make food energy by photosynthesis

Leaves

Absorb carbon dioxide from the air

Leaves

Chlorophyll absorbs sunlight energy

Leaves

Combine those with water coming up from roots

Leaves

Make Sugar, which is used as energy

Leaves

Oxygen is made and released during the process

Leaves

What is the chemical formula of Photosynthesis?

Water + Carbon dioxide + sunlight -> Sugar + Oxygen

What is a chemical process that occurs in animals that is the opposite of photosynthesis?

Cellular respiration

Has several layers of tissue

Leaf structure

Covering that prevents water loss

Cuticle

Openings in the leaf that allow carbon dioxide in

Stomata

Evaporation of water from the leaves.

Transpiration

If more water leaves than the amount coming in through the roots, the plant will ____________

Wilt

Xylem and phloem also found in ____________

Leaves

Modified leaves that make up the outermost ring of flower parts and protect the bud

Sepal

Sepals fold back when the ____________ opens

Blossoms

The broad, flat parts of a flower

Petals

Petals vary in ____________ and ____________ to attract pollinators

Color - Shape

Petals vary in color and shape to ____________ ___________

Attract pollinators

The male reproductive structure

Stamen

The stamen contains a stalk called a _____________

Filament

On top of the filament is the ____________ that produces pollen.

Anther

The female reproductive structure

Pistil

On top of the pistil is the ____________, which is a sticky structure where pollen grains collect

Stigma

A long, slender ____________ is under the stigma

Style

The round base of the pistil is the ____________ and contains one or more ovules.

Ovary

Each ____________ contains an egg

Ovule

When the egg is fertilized, the ovule develops into a ____________ and the ovary develops into a ____________

Seed - Fruit

Occurs when pollen moves from anthers to stigmas

Pollination

After pollen lands on ____________, a tube grows down from each pollen grain down the style to an ovule

Stigma

Sperm from the pollen move down the pollen tube into an ____________

Ovule

Occurs when the sperm fuses with an egg in the ovule

Fertilization

When sperm and egg join, a ____________ forms.

Seed

_____ parts of a seed

Three

A young plant

Sporophyte

Stored food is found in the ____________

Cotyledons

Seed ___________ to protect the young plant

Coat

Stored ____________ can be used by the young plant when it starts to grow

Food

Seeds can be spread by ____________ efficiently

Animals

_____ groups of angiosperms

Two

Seeds contain one cotyledon, or seed leaf

Monocots

Seeds contain two cotyledons, or seed leaves

Dicots

The ovary surrounding the seeds develops into a ____________

Fruit

Some fruits and seeds have structures that help ____________ carry them

Wind

Many fruits are ____________ and animals may eat the fruits

Edible

Then, the animals discard seeds ____________ from the plant

Away

Once a seed is fully developed, the young plant inside stops ____________

Growing

The seed may become ____________, or inactive

Dormant

Some seeds will come out of dormancy on their own, others may need a cold winter or a ____________ to break their dormancy

Fire

When seeds are dropped or planted in a suitable environment, they will ____________, or sprout.

Germinate

When pollen is carried by wind from male cones to female cones

Pollination

Male and female cones may be on the ____________ plant or on different plants

Same

Occurs when egg and sperm join.

Fertilization

A sporophyte develops in a seed in the ____________ cone

Female

The seed will be released either right away or due to special circumstances such as a ____________

Fire

If conditions are right, the seed will ____________ into an adult plant

Grow

Growth in response to a stimulus

Tropism

Growth toward the stimulus

Positive

Growth away from the stimulus

Negative

A change in the direction a plant is growing caused by light

Phototropism

Plants will grow ____________ light

Toward

Shoots bend because cells on the dark side grow ____________ than cells on the other side

Longer

A change in the direction a plant is growing caused by gravity

Gravitropism

Roots have ____________ gravitropism, growing down toward the center of Earth

Positive

Shoots have a ____________ gravitropism, growing up away from the center of Earth

Negative

Changes with the seasons cause ____________ changes

Reproductive

Changes with seasons cause ______ ______

Leaf loss

Trees that lose some leaves year-round so that some leaves are always on the tree

Evergreen

Trees that lose all their leaves around the same time each year to conserve energy in cold, dry seasons

Deciduous trees

In deciduous trees, as fall approaches- and colder temperatures- leaves change color due to ____________ breaking down leaving the orange and yellow pigments to be revealed

Chlorophyll