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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

woody plants

produce hard lignified secondary tissues; herbaceous plants do not

annuals

are herbaceous plants that grow reproduce, and die in one year or less

biennials

are herbaceous plants that take two years to complete their life cycles before dying

Perennials

are herbaceous and woody plants that live for more than two years


under certain conditions, aerial (aboveground) stems of these herbaceous may die back

underground parts (roots and underground stems) become

dormant

all woody plants

are perennials; some live for hundreds or thousands of years


temperate woody perennials are deciduous and others are evergreen

root system

usually vascular plants are organized into an underground...

shoot system

an aerial.... whig consists of a stem, leaves, and, in flowering plants, flowers and fruits

roots

branch extensively through the soil, anchor the plant firmly in place, and absorb water and dissolve minerals (inorganic nutrients)

leaves

attached on the stem, absorb the sun's light and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) used in photosynthesis

Plant cells are organized....

into tissues (groups of cells that form a structural and functional unit)


simple tissues: are composed of one kind of cell


complex tissues: have two or more kinds of cells

organs

roots, stems, leaves, flower parts, and fruits are composed of all three tissue systems

ground tissue system

has a variety of functions, including photosynthesis, storage, and support

vascular tissue system

conducts substances such as water, dissolved minerals, and food (dissolved sugar) throughout the plant body

dermal tissue system

provides a covering for the plant body

three tissues of ground tissue system

parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma are distinguished by their cell wall structures

primary cell wall

a growing plant cell secretes a thin .... which expands as the cell grows

secondary cell wall

when the cell stops growing, it sometimes secretes a thick..... inside the primary cell wall- between the primary cell wall and the plasma membrane

parenchyma

found throughout the plant body


functions in photosynthesis, storage, and secretion


cells are alive a metabolically active


cells can differentiate into other kinds of cells, particularly when a plant has been injured

collenchyma

extremely flexible structural tissue that provides support in soft, nonwoody plant organs

cells are alive at maturity


primary cell walls are especially thick in the corners


is not found throughout the plant; often occurs as long strands near stem surfaces and along leaf veins

sclerenchyma

cells have primary walls and strong, thick secondary walls

thin areas in secondary walls (pits) allow exchange of substances between adjacent living sclerenchyma cells


mature, functioning cells are dead


sclereids

are sclerenchyma cells of variable shape common in shells of nuts and in stones of fruits

fibers

are long, tapered cells that occur in clumps in wood, inner bark, and leaf ribs (veins) of flowering plants

cellulose

is a polysaccharide composed of glucose units joined by b-1,4 bonds, forming a ribbonlike chain

forming a cellulose microfibril

40 to 70 chains lie parallel to one another and connect by hydrogen bonding

cellulose microfibrils

are cemented together by a matrix of hemicelluloses and pectins

hemicelluloses

are polysaccharides that vary in composition

some are composed of xyloglucan (b-1,4-glucose with side chains of xylose)


pectin

is a polysaccharide of alpha-galacturonic acid monomers

lignin

is a strengthening polymer made up of monomers derived from certain amino acids

vascular tissue system

is embedded in the ground tissue, transports needed materials throughout the plant via two complex tissues: xylem and phloem

both xylem and phloem

are continuous throughout the plant

xylem

conducts water and dissolved minerals from roots to stems and leaves, and provides structural support

in flowering plants, xylem is composed of four cell types:

tracheids and vessel elements conduct water and dissolved minerals

fibers provide support


xylem parenchyma perform storage functions


apoptosis

tracheids and vessel elements undergo.... during development- mature cells are dead and hollow

tracheids

(long, tapering cells) conduct water upward, from roots to shoots; water passes from one into another through wide pits

vessel elements

(with perforations in their end walls) are stacked one on top of the other, forming a miniature water pipe (vessels)- pits in the side walls allow lateral transport

phloem

conducts carbohydrates formed in photosynthesis throughout the plant, and provides structural support

in flowering plants, phloem is composed of four cell types:

sieve tube elements and companion cells work together to transport carbohydrates

fibers provide additional support


phloem parenchyma cells


sieve tube elements

joined end to end to form long .... tubes, conduct dissolved food materials through the plant

are living at maturity, but many organelles (nucleus, vacuole, mitochondria, and ribosomes) disintegrate or shrink as they mature

sieve plates

the cels end walls (...) have holes through which cytoplasm extends from one sieve tube element into the next

companion cell

adjacent to each sieve tube element is a ..... that helps move sugar into the sieve tube elements

is living; its nucleus is thought to direct activists of both the ..... and sieve tube element


plasmodesmata

cytoplasmic connections (...) link a companion cell with its adding sieve tube element

dermal tissue system

(epidermis and periderm) provides a protective covering over plant parts

epidermis

in herbaceous plants, the dermal tissue system is a single layer of cells


woody plants initially produce an....



periderm

replaces the epidermis in stems and roots of older wood plants, composes the outer bark

epidermis usually consists of

a single layer of flattened relatively unspecialized living cells, with specialized guard cells and outgrowths (trichomes) dispersed among them

epidermal cells of aerial parts

secrete a waxy cuticle over the surface, which greatly restricts water loss

stomata

pores in the epidermis formed by two guard cells, facilitate diffusion of gases (CO2, oxygen, and water vapor) across the cuticle

epidermis contains special outgrowths

trichomes; with a variety of functions


in salty environments

specialized trichomes on leaves remove excess salt that accumulates in the plant

in desert plants

trichomes on aerial parts increase reflection of light, cool internal tissues

in stinging nettle

trichomes contain irritating chemicals

root hairs

are simple trichomes that increase surface area of root epidermis, increasing absorption

periderm forms under the epidermis

as a woody plant increases in girth, epidermis is sloughed off, exposing periderm which forms the outer bark

periderm is a complex tissue composed...

mainly of cork cells and cork parenchyma cells

cork cell

are dead at maturity; their walls are coated with waterproof suberin, which helps reduce water loss

cork parenchyma cells

function primarily in storage

meristems

when plants grow, cells divide only in specific areas where the primary function is to form new cells by mitotic division

meristematic cells

(stem cells) do not differentiate- they retain the ability to divide by mitosis

indeterminate growth

roots and stems grow throughout a plants life

determinate growth

leaves and flowers stop growing after reaching a certain size

Primary growth

is an increase in stem and root length


all plants have primary growth, which produces the entireplant body in herbaceous plants and the young, softshoots and roots in woody trees and shrubs

Secondary growth

is an increase in plant girth

gymnosperms and woody eudicots

trees and shrubs have secondary growth

wood and bark

which make up the bulk of trees and shrubs, are produced by secondary growth

apical meristems

primary growth occurs in .... which is located at the tips of the roots and shoots

bubs

dormant embryonic shoots that develop into branches

root cap

protective, covers the root apical meristem, where cells are continually dividing

behind the meristem

is an area of cell elongation, where tissues begin to differentiate

root hair

appear farther up the tip, where most cells have completely differentiated and are fully mature

shoot apex

primary growth, such as the terminal bub is a dome of meristematic cells (shoot apical meristem)

leaf primordia

developing leaves

bub primordia

developing buds arise from shoot apical meristem

shoot apical meristem elongate

as cells form the ..... is pushed upward

farther from the stem tip

immature cells differentiate into the three tissue systems of the mature plant body

lateral meristems

increase in girth (secondary growth) is due to cell divisions in ...... extending along the entire length of stems and roots except at the tips

two lateral meristems are responsible for secondary growth

vascular cambium and cork cambium, which forms secondary tissues: secondary xylem, secondary phloem and periderm

vascular cambium

is a layer of meristematic cells between the wood and bark of a woody plant

secondary xylem

adds more cells to the wood and inner bark secondary phloem

cork cambium

is a cylinder or irregular arrangement of meristmatic cells in the outer bark

cell division

forms cork cells toward the outside and underlying layers of cork parenchyma for storage

periderm

collectively, cork cells, cork cambium, and cork parenchyma make up the...

bark

outermost covering of woody stems and roots

bark consists of

all plant tissues outside the vascular cambium

bark has two regions

living inner bark composed of secondary phloem; mostly dead outer bark composed of periderm

development

in plants encompasses all the changes that take place during the entire life of an individual

cells specialize and organize into a complex organism

the embryo in a seed give rise to leaves, stems and roots of juvenile plant; a non reproductive juvenile plant transitions to an adult plant capable of flowering

cell divisions

in one or more planes help to establish the tissue patterns that will be produced during development

preprophase band

just prior to mitosis, microtubles form a..... inside the plasma membrane that determine the plane in which the cell will divide

elongation

cell division and cell expansion are controlled by genes that interact with signals from external and internal environments

turgor pressure

when a newly formed cell absorbs water into its vacuole by osmosis, increasing ..... against the cell wall and causing it to expand

cell microfibrils

in the wall prevent the cell from expanding equally in all directions - the wall expands perpendicularly to the microfibrils

cell differentiation

certain cells become biochemically and structurally specialized to carry out specific functions through this process

cell determination

cell differentiation occurs through... a series of molecular events that cause a cell to progressively commit to a particular

differential gene expression

differentiated cells have different genes are active in different cells that determines the structure and function of the cell

cells isolated from certain plants

can be grown in culture when specific materials are added that induce cells to divide

callus

cultured cells divide to produce a mass of disorganized relatively undifferentiated cells

F. C. Steward

1958 a man succeeded in generating an entire carrot plant from a single callus cell derived from a carrot root

genetically superior plant

researchers can now regenerate many genetically identical plants from cells of a single.....

morphogenesis

is the development of form; differentiated cells in specific locations become organized into recognizable three-dimensional structures

pattern formation

morphogenesis proceeds through.....

depending on the location, cells are exposed to different concentrations of signaling moles that specify

positional information

where a cell is located

determines cell differentiation and tissue formation

arabidopsis thaliana

mouse-ear cress is the organism most widely used to study genetic control of development in plants

botanists use chemical mutagens to produce mutant strains of Aradibopsis

such as the mutant for monopteros (mp) gene, which lack basal structures, including a primary root

has had its small genome about 26,700 genes sequenced

arabidopsis