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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the four primary metabolites
carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids
What three important functions do secondary metabolites perform for plants?
structure, defense
Do plant secondary metabolites have limited or extensive phylogenetic distribution?
restricted
Plant secondary metabolites can be divided into three chemically distinct groups, what are they?
terpenes, phenolics, nitrogen containing compounds
What is the basic structural element of a terpene called?
isoprene unit
What two pathways exist for terpene biosynthesis?
The mevalonic acid pathway and the methylergthritol phosphate pathway
The terpene saponin protects against what type of invader?
fungal
The two ways in which terpenes act as "primary" metabolites are?
Hormones, Caratenoid Pigments
What are four foles of phenolic compounds?
1) Defense against herbivores and pathogens,
2) mechanical support,
3) attracting pollinators and fruit dispersers,
4) in absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation
What is the most abundant organic substance in plants after cellulose? Describe it's role
lignin, it provides support and can be found in conducting tissues such as the cell walls of Xylem
The different types of flavonoid perform a range of functions, including
insect and animal attraction
Describe the ecological function of volatile compounds in wild plants
Volatiles attract natural enemies of the attacking herbivore, and can also signal neighboring plants to initiate expression of defense related genes
Describe the chain of events in signal transduction.
Signal ----> receptor ----> signal trasduction ---->response
How do receptors initiate signal trasduction?
affecting the activity of other proteins
What was the first (or one of the earliest) signal transduction pathways that was identified in plants?
phytochrome
What are some commonalities between animal and plant secondary messengers?
They both use calcium, lipid signaling molecules, and pH changes, to trigger physiological responses
What is a kinase?
an enzyme activity that catalyzes phosphorylation
What is the utility of a kinase cascade?
To transmit a signal in a linear direction
What type of protein does the opposite function of a kinase and is also important for signal transduction pathways?
phosphatases
Describe how phytochromes enter the nucleus
light induces a conformational change in the cytoplasmic protein, exposing a nuclear localization signal
Why is there this propensity of negative signaling pathways in plants?
it's faster
How long does it take for a plant cell to transcribe a gene?
30 minutes