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108 Cards in this Set

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1. When taking SOAP notes, what does the -S, -O, -A, -P represent in the chart notes?

S - Subjective (Person Tells You)

O - Objective - (Clinician Can Observe)

A - Assessment - (Diagnosis)

P - Plan (Future Protocol)

2. Clifford came to your office complaining of severe stomach cramps. He stated that he took Tums because he has a history of heartburn and that this medication usually works. The Tums did not bring him any relief. He stated that he just returned from a weekend fishing trip with the guys. They were able to catch fish and shrimp but because they stayed so late, they decided to cook and eat what they caught instead of returning home. He says he also feels hot, itchy, and can feel his heart beating in his chest. His heart rate is elevated to 102 beats per minute (bpm). You diagnose Clifford with an allergic reaction to fish and prescribed medication. He needs to take his medication three times a day and follow up in your office in 3 days. Write SOAP notes for this patient.

S - Clifford is complaining of severe stomach cramps. He took Tums. He has a history of heartburn. He feels hot, itchy, and he can feel his heart beating in his chest.

O - Heart rate is elevated to 102.

A - Diagnosis of allergic reaction to fish

P - take medication three times a day and follow up in doctor's office in 3 days

3. You are working in pediatric surgery and need to retrieve the young patient's chart to confirm her diagnosis before surgery. Which section of the SOAP notes would contain this information?

To confirm her diagnosis before surgery. The pediatric surgeon should check the SOAP note's assesmnt section for the diagnosis of what is wrong with the patient.

4. If a person has elevated blood pressure (BP) and you take their blood pressure, where do you write your findings in the SOAP notes?

If a person has elevated blood pressure, you would write your findings in the OBJECTIVE of the SOAP notes because that is what the clinician can observe (diagnostic technique)

5. Why is it important t take accurate SOAP notes?

It is important to take accurate SOAP notes because it is a legal document. And in case there's a lawsuit, the documents will justify what you did, and if you didn't document it, you didn't do it.

6. Susan was on a blind date and decided that she would impress her date by drinking excessively. After the first 2 drinks, her speech begins to slur. After the 5th drink, she passed out on the floor. Her date rushes her to your clinic and tells you what happened. Susan is still unconscious. You take her vitals and everything is decreased except her temperature which is within normal limits. You diagnose her with severe dehydration that resulted in syncope (fainting). You inform her date that the clinic will give Susan intravenous saline to rehydrate her and will send her home in a few hours. Write SOAP notes for this patient.

S - Susan was drinking excessively. Her speech is slurred. She passed out.

O - Susan is unconscious. She has decreased temperature.

A - Doctor diagnoses Susan with severe dehydration manifested by syncope and/or fainting.

P - Future protocol or plan is IV saline to rehydrate Susan

7. When you take SOAP notes, you always include your signature at the end of the notes. Why do you think a signature is required?

A signature is required at the end of SOAP notes because it is a legal document and the person who writes it takes the responsibility for it.

8. Your office request SOAP notes (chart notes) from another clinic. You notice that the clinic did not record the patient's vitals (Blood Pressure, Temperature, Pulse, and Breathing Rate). Do you assume that the patient is healthy and perform your procedures without taking the vitals also? Explain.

No, call the clinic to get previous vitals for the baseline of the patient and also check vitals in the office to establish your own baseline of patient's vitals.

9. When you write a prescription for a patient, where do you include this information in your SOAP notes?

P - future protocol/ plan

10. Candy is a professional swimmer and comes in the office complaining about right ear pain. You notice that she is speaking louder than normal and wonder if there has been damage to the right ear. All her vitals are normal except her temperature is elevated. You diagnose her with an outer ear infection called otitis externa or swimmer's ear. You prescribe an antibiotic to be taken for 10 days and tell her to follow up in 2 weeks. Write SOAP notes for this patient.

S - Candy is complaining of right ear pain.

O - She speaks louder than normal and has elevated temperature.

A - You diagnose Candy with ear infection (otitis externa or swimmer's ear)

P - You prescribe antibiotics for Candy to take for ten days and ask her to follow up in 2 weeks.

11. Sampson called the office and wanted to speak with the doctor. You inform Sampson that the doctor was out on a call so he decides to talk to you. Sampson is a patient that frequently comes to your office and you know him very well. He tells you that his pain has returned and asks if you can call the pharmacy for his refill instead of him coming into the office. You get permission from the doctor over the phone and you make the call to the pharmacy. Does the information discussed over the phone and you make the call to the pharmacy. Does the information discussed over the phone with Sampson need to be included in the chart notes? Explain your answer.

Yes, for future reference in case there's side effects to the medication, billing purposes, change after medication taken.

12. Give 3 examples of the type of information you would include under (P) Plan.

1. Medication to be administered Twice a Day

2. Blood Sugar check four times a day (before meals and before sleep)

3. Follow up in 1 week with doctor.

4. Nothing by mouth (NPO)

13. If you perform an MRI on a patient and record your findings, where would you put this information in your chart?

Assessment - what your findings are

14. Katie is a star basketball player for a local high school. She was going up for a slam dunk and her opponent fell on her leg and the posterior portion of her ankle. She had to be carried off the court by her coach. Her coach immediately applied ice to the area. When the EMT arrived, her ankle was red and swollen. The EMT took her vitals and stated that her vitals were all normal except her blood pressure was elevated. She was transported to the hospital for further testing and X-rays. If you were the clinician that saw Katie when she first arrived at the hospital and she retold her story to you, what information would you include under subjective?

S - Her opponent fell on her leg and posterior portion of her ankle. The coach applied ice to the area of her ankle that was red and swollen. When the EMTs arrived, the EMT told her that her blood pressure was elevated.

15. Lucy works in a pharmacy and is calling your clinic to determine how much medication the patient needs to take. Where would you put this information?

P - Plan/ Future Protocol

16. A blood draw was done on Mrs. Wallace while she was in the office. The patient was instructed to wait in the waiting room for the results. Where would you put the results in the patient's chart?


17. Give three examples of the type of information you would include under subjective?

Subjective - Patient tells you that they have a sore throat, insomnia, nausea & vomiting

18. A patient has been taking the same prescription and dosage for the past 6 months. He is just coming in to the office to get a check-up and his monthly prescription. Where would you put the information gathered from his physical exam (from his check up)?

S - Subjective (Medication patient is currently taking for the last 6 months)

Objective - Information gathered from his physical exam

19. Body Systems: Give a brief description of the function of each system listed:

1. Cardiovascular

2. Integumentary

3. Digestive

4. Endocrine

5. Lymphatic/ Immune

6. Muscular

7. Nervous

8. Reproductive

9. Urinary

10. Respiratory

11. Skeletal

1. Cardiovascular: Heart pumps blood, blood vessels export blood which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide waste, and nutrients

2. Integumentary: External body covering for protection of deeper tissues, synthesizes vitamin D and sites of cutaneous receptors

3. Digestive: Breaks down food that is absorbed into blood for distribution in body cells

4. Endocrine: Glands secrete hydration that regulate processes by body cells

5. Lymphatic/Immune: Picks up leaked fluid from blood vessels and returns it to blood, houses WBCs

6. Muscular: Locomotion and heat

7. Nervous: Control system of body that responds to internal and external change by activating muscles and glands

8. Reproductive: Production of offspring

9. Urinary System: Eliminates nitrogenous waste, water regulation, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of blood

10. Respiratory: Oxygenize blood and carbon dioxide removal

11. Skeletal: Protects and Supports body organs, framework for muscles, produces blood cells within bones and stores minerals

What organs are found in the Right Hypochondriac?

Right lobe of liver


Part of duodenum

Hepatic flexure of colon

Upper half of right kidney

Suprarenal gland

What organs are found in the Epigastric region?


Pyloric end of stomach

Part of duodenum


Part of liver

What organs are found in the Left Hypochondriac?



Tail of pancreas

Splenic flexure of colon

Upper half of left kidney

Suprarenal gland

What organs are found in the Right Lumbar?

Ascending colon

Lower half of right kidney

Part of duodenum and jejunum

What organs are found in the Umbilical Region?



Lower part of duodenum

Part of jejunum and ileum

What organs are found in the Left Lumbar Region?

Descending Colon
Lower half of left kidney
Part of jejunum and ileum

What organs are found in the Right Inguinal/Iliac Region?



Lower end of ileum

Right ureter

Right spermatic cord (male)

Right ovary (female)

What organs are found in the Hypogastric Region?


Bladder (if enlarged)

Uterus (if enlarged)

What organs are found in the Left Inguinal/Iliac Region?

Sigmoid Colon

Left Ureter

Left spermatic cord (male)

Left ovary (female)

Which organ system is involved:

Eating turkey?

Digestive System

Which organ system is involved: Sensation of heat?

Nervous System

Which organ system is involved: increase in height?


Which organ system is involved: working out in the gym?


Which organ system is involved: systemic bruising?


Which organ system is involved: listening?

nervous system

Which organ system is involved: writing a poem?

skeletal and nervous system

Which organ system is involved: recovering from flu?

lymphatic system

Which organ system is involved: Pregnancy?

Reproductive system

Complete the following by choosing correct anatomical term: In an incision cuts the Left Lung in Right and Left parts, the section is a 10 cut, but if both lungs cut into sections that divide them into superior and inferior parts, this is a 11 cut.

10. sagittal

11. horizontal/crosssectional/transverse

In anatomical position, the nose and navel are on the 12 body surface. The calves and shoulder blades are on the 13 body surface, while the soles of the feet are the most 14. The nipples are 15 to the shoulder blades and 16 to the armpits. The heart is 17 to the spine and 18 to the lungs. The knee is 19 to the toes but 20 to the thigh.

12. anterior/ventral

13. dorsal/posterior

14. inferior

15. ventral/anterior

16. medial

17. anterior

18. medial

19. superior/proximal

20. inferior

Identify which body cavity involved:

21. Surgical removal of prostate gland

Pelvic Cavity

Identify which body cavity involved:

22. Tumor in brain

Cranial Cavity

Identify which body cavity involved:

23. Heart Surgery

Thoracic Cavity

Which part of the SOAP notes:

24. Nose bleed in Office


Which part of the SOAP notes:

25. Coughed out sputum 4 days ago


Which part of the SOAP notes:

26. Complaining of diarrhea


Which part of the SOAP notes:

27. 100 Degree Fahrenheit


Which part of the SOAP notes:

28. Respiration Rate of 22


1. What is the difference between an organic and inorganic compound? Give 2 examples of each? (Lecture 2, Slide 40)

Organic compounds contain carbon, most are covalently bonded (e.g., glucose, lipid fats, olive oil, peanut oil, nuts, avocado, corn oil). Inorganic compounds have no carbon, structurally smaller and simpler compounds (e.g., water - the most abundant inorganic compound or hydrogen peroxide).

2. What is a free radical? How can a tissue develop abnormal cells from exposure to free radicals? (Lecture 2, Slide 26)

Free radicals damage DNA, bad message, cells divide abnormally. Free radicals are electrically charged atom or groups of atoms with an unpaired electron in the outermost shell. Unpaired electron will react with other molecules making them behave abnormally cell behaves and divides abnormally (abnormal mitosis) Cancer

3. Explain how the plasma membrane is a lipid bi-layer. Why is the plasma membrane so important? Which major cation levels would be elevated in the blood stream if the plasma membrane of the majority of the cells inside the body started to breakdown? Explain your answer.

Phospholipids serve as barriers between ECF and ICF. Lipid bi-layer oily barrier separating ECF from ICF. Amphiphatic molecule containing polar and nonpolar ends, is selectively permeable, allows some molecules to pass through and acts as a barrier to other molecules. The major cation that would be elevated in the blood stream if the plasma membrane of the majority of the ells inside the body started to breakdown would be potassium. Potassium can be leaking from somewhere or their intake to high and acidic area.

4. A deep coronal cut was made in the head. Name 3 anatomical structures in each section of the cut.

Frontal/coronal divides into anterior and posterior (anterior is front of the body and posterior is back of the body). Anterior parts of the body include orbital, forehead, buccal, umbilical, nasal, oral, axillary. Posterior parts of the body include sacral, calcaneas, gluteal, acromial, occipital bone, parietal bone, cerebellum/spinal cord

5. Explain the purpose of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP). How is energy extracted from this molecule?

ATP captures the energy that is released when glucose molecules are broken down. Energy is released by breaking the high energy phosphate bonds in ATP. Energy is capacity to do work. Energy can be stored in ATP. Energy can be used (breaking the phosphate bonds)

6. Explain what occurs during a basic chemical reaction. Name two ways a chemical reaction can yield an unexpected product? (Lecture 2, slide 34)

Chemical reactions involve making and breaking bonds. Making bonds requires the input of energy while breaking chemical bonds releases energy. Majority of chemical reactions in the body occur inside the cell. Free radicals, radiation enzymes, acidic environments, body temp 104 would yield an unexpected product.

7. Create SOAP notes for the following: John explains that he has a history of elevated blood pressure. He is also complaining of a headache, fever, and sneezing with sputum production. He was diagnosed with an upper respiratory infection and given a decongestant to take 3 times a day. Vitals are within normal limit except for a temperature of 104 degrees.

Subjective - history of elevated blood pressure, complaining of headache, fever, sneezing with sputum production

Objective - temperature of 104 degrees

Assessment of diagnosis of upper respiratory infection

Plan of decongestant three times a day

8. Give two functions of adipose tissue? How is excessive lipid consumption damaging to the body? (Lecture 4, Slide 29)

Adipose tissue is storage for triglycerides. Adipose tissue reduces heat loss through the skin, serves as an energy reserve, supports, protects, and generates considerable heat to help maintain proper body temperature in newborns (brown fat), The excessive lipid consumption damages the body by being stored as body fat.

9. What is the difference between a solvent, solute, and solution? Given an example of each.

Solute is a substance dissolved in liquid (e.g. salt in water)

Solvent is a dissolving medium (e.g. water)

Solution is a homogenous mixture of 2 or more components (e.g. solutes dissolved in a solvent to make a solution)

Solvent follows Solute

10. What is the purpose of deoxyribonucleic acid? Where is it located in the cell? How does a person acquire their DNA? (lecture 3, slides 37-40)

DNA has our genetic information/ gene expression/ hereditary information. It is located in the nucleus, a person acquires their DNA from the mother and father's sperm and egg.

11. What is an ion? What is the difference between an anion and a cation? Given an example of each (Lecture 2, slide 20)

An ion is an atom that has lost of gained an electron. An ion that has lost an electron has a positive charge and called a cation, sodium and calcium are examples. If an atom gains an electron it becomes negatively charged ion, which are called anions, chloride ion, carbonate ion, ions have the ability to conduct electrically when dissolved in water.

12. Define homeostasis? How does the pH (potential hydrogen) level relate to proper body functioning? Why do you think companies now advertise for people to consume alkaline water?

Homeostasis is the condition of equilibrium or balance in the body's internal environment/maintaining a balance throughout the body. Two buffering organ systems are the respiratory and urinary system to maintain stability of the body's fluids by preventing sharp changes in the body's pH. Maintain homeostasis by keeping body fluids at a relatively constant pH. Blood has pH of 7.3-7.45, blood is more alkaline, blood gets alkalinity from food we eat.

13. A patient has been cut obliquely with a sharp object in the right hypochondriac region. Describe (in general terms) where this region is located and what anatomical structures may have been cut due to the direction of the cut. Name at least three.

The liver, gallbladder or nipple could have been cut

14. Create SOAP notes for the following: Cary has severe epi-gastric pain and is complaining of nausea, vomiting, and heartburn. She can also taste acid in her mouth. She does not have a fever and has normal blood pressure and pulse. She was diagnosed with heartburn and given an Antacid to be taken once a day. She was instructed to follow-up in 1 week.

S - Cary complaining of nausea/vomit/heartburn/taste acid in her mouth/severe pain

O - pain at epigastric region, afebrile, normal blood pressure, and normal pulse

A - diagnosis of heartburn

P - take an Antacid once a day and follow up in 1 week

15. Explain the control of homeostasis: receptor, control center, effector. Give an example. (Lecture 1, pages 2)

Receptor - Monitor changes in a controlled condition and sends input to a control center (signal sent to the brain) that evaluates input from receptor and generates output commands (walk on nail and receptor is the foot). Effector - receives output from the control center and produces a response (reaction of muscle system of hop away/ reflex response)

16. List and define four basic life processes.

Metabolism - sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body

Catabolism - breakdown of complex substances into simpler componentss

Anabolism - the building up of complex simple to complex substances

Responsiveness - the body's ability to detect and respond to change

Movement - motion of the body

Differentiation - development of a cell from an unspecified to a specialized state

(My CAR Many Dings)

17.What is metabolism? How does anabolism relate to the normal metabolic processes that occur within the body?

Metabolism is the sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body. Anabolism is the building up of complex simple to complex substances. We eat carbohydrates (catabolism) breaks down to glucose (anabolism) ATP and energy stored in bonds when studying these bonds break.

18. List the four quadrants of the body? Name an organ in each quadrant.

Right upper quadrant - liver

Left upper quadrant - heart

Right lower quadrant - Small intestine

Left lower quadrant - Large intestine

19. A patient comes into your clinic because of pain in the hypo-gastric region. Describe the location of the area (in general terms) and name 2 organs in the area that could possibly cause the patient's discomfort.

Hypogastric region is between right inguinal and left inguinal, it's the pubic area/region that has the urinary bladder and rectum, vagina/penis/under belly button, reproductive system/ bladder infection.

20. A jogger has accidentally stepped off the curb and sprained his ankle. Which organ system could have been damaged due to the injury? Name at least 3 and explain your answer.

Nervous System - Pain/feeling

Muscular System - Strain/ Move blood through circulatory system to heal tendon injury tissue repair

Integumentary System - break in his skin

Skeletal System - heal joint/cartilage injury

Cardiovascular - bruising

21. Create SOAP notes for the following: Lucy has left scapula pain which radiates to the left arm and jaw, an abnormal heart beat, chest pain 7/10 that's worse with movement and she is sweating profusely. She was diagnosed with a mild myocardial infarction (heart attack) and is given Nitroglycerine medication under her tongue. Vitals are all elevated. You refer her to a cardiologist for further diagnostic tests.

S - complaining of pain that radiates from her left arm and jaw with 7/10 pain that's worst with movement

O - abnormal heart beat, diaphoretic/vitals elevated

A - diagnosis with mild myocardial infarction (heart attack)

P - given Nitroglycerine under tongue, refer her to cardiologist for further diagnostic testing

Is this part of RNA, DNA, or both:

ribose sugar


Is this part of RNA, DNA, or both:


Is this part of RNA, DNA, or both:


Is this part of RNA, DNA, or both:
located in cytoplasm


Is this part of RNA, DNA, or both:


Is this part of RNA, DNA, or both:


Is this part of RNA, DNA, or both:
Single stranded


Is this part of RNA, DNA, or both:
Located in Nucleus


Is this part of RNA, DNA, or both:

Deoxyribose Sugar


DNA strand is































1. Give a brief explanation and draw both mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis starts with 46 chromosome cells and cells makes a copy of itself and as a result there will be 2 cells both with 46 chromosomes each (diploid cell). Meiosis is when the ell divides from 46 to 23 and 23, half of the genetic material given to each daughter cell (haploid cell)

2. Name two differences and two similarities between haploid and diploid cells?

Differences - Diploid cells contains 46 chromosomes and Haploid cells contain 23 chromosomes

Similarities is both replicate and both start out diploid

Mitosis occurs in eukaryote

3. Draw and give a brief explanation of the cell cycle.

Cell cycle has 2 major periods. 1) Interphase: No cell division, cell grows and carries metabolic processes 2) Cell division is when the cell replicates itself for growth and repair, series of changes required for the cell to reproduce itself (growth and synthesis phase aka G1, S, G2)

G1 (gap 1) metabolic activity and vigorous growth

S (synthesis) is DNA replication

G2 (gap 2) Preparation for division.

4. Explain the process of protein synthesis. Include where transcription and translation occur within the cell?

Protein synthesis is the transfer of the information on DNA into a language that the body can understand (protein). Transcription is DNA to mRNA that occurs in the nucleus. Translation is mRNA to protein that is mRNA to tRNA to protein (chain of amino acids) that occurs in cytoplasm.

Codons are on mRNA

Anticodons are on tRNA

5. List the function of the following organelles, endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough), peroxisomes, golgi-complex, nucleus, lysosomes, and mitochondria.

Endoplasmic reticulum is the network within the cytoplasm. Rough ER is where ribosomes make proteins here, phosolipids, and cholesterol for Plasma Membrane. Smooth ER is where lipid and cholesterol metabolizes (in liver and kidneys), absorption, synthesis and transport of fat in intestinal cells, storage, and release of calcium (skeletal muscle and heart). Golgi complex/apparatus is where concentrate and package proteins made in RER (UPS). Lysosomes are cells digestive system (breakdown bacteria). Mitochondria is the power house of cell, ATP (energy) production. Peroxisomes are organelles that produce and decompose hydrogen peroxide. Nucleus is the largest organelle.

6. Name two ions that are located in the intracellular fluid and one in the extra cellular fluid.

Intracellular fluid is Potassium

Extracellular fluid is Sodium

7. Some cells, such as muscle cells, have more mitochondria. Based on knowing the function of the mitochondria, why do you think muscle cells contain more? Explain.

Mitochondria is the power house of the cell, ATP (energy) production more energy is more ATP.

8. John is in the hospital and was accidentally given an excessive amount of a hypo-tonic solutation intravenously. How will this affect his red blood cells?

Cells can burst

9. Why can't we drink excessive ocean water? What do you think will happen to the red blood cells in the body if ocean water is consumed in excess?

Ocean water has a lot of sodium. Cells would shrink and swelling would occur. High concentrations of sodium in the blood is challenging due to cells membrane being semipermeable. When salt concentration is higher on the outside of our cells than on the inside, water moves from the inside to the outside of the cell to correct imbalance causing cells to shrink in order to regain isotonic state, body attempts to eliminate excess sodium from its extracellular fluids. It secretes urine. Kidneys can only produce urine that is slightly less salty than salt water. Dehydration sets in.

10. Why can't water pass directly through the plasma membrane? Which structures allow water movement between the extracellular and intracellular fluid?

Water can't pass directly through the plasma membrane because it's selectively permeable. Plasma membrane is oil/phospholipid. Plasma membrane separates ICF and ECF.

11. Which bases are found on RNA?

Bases for RNA include A, U, G, C.

12. Where are ribosomes produced? What role does a ribosome play in protein synthesis?

Ribosomes are produced in the nucleoli. Ribosomes are dark stained granules composed of proteins, sites of protein synthesis. Ribosomes travel along strands of mRNA and provide sites for tRNA to attach according to codon sequence.

13. What is the difference between a somatic and a germ cell? Name at least 3 differences.

Somatic cells is all cells in the body except sex cells.

Germ cells are reproductive cells or gamete cells. Germ cells are produced through meiosis, somatic cells are produced through process of mitosis and cytokinesis. Germ cells contain one set of chromosomes, somatic cells have dipoloid number of chromosomes. Germ cells from embryo's gut than somatic cells found in blood, connective tissues, bones, skin, and internal organs.

14. What is the definition of apoptosis?

Apoptosis is programmed cell death. Example is RBCs have a life span of 120 days and dies.

15. Fat cells are located in connective tissue. How do you think a person goes from 15% body fat to 55% body fat?

Body fat is like adipose tissue that consists of adipocytes which are specialized for storage of triglycerides, it's an energy reserve and if not used up then continues to be stored and increased amount of body fat.

16. In an upper respiratory infection, what type of membrane gets infected? What other membrane does the respiratory system have and where is it located?

In an upper respiratory infection, the mucous membrane that line cavities that are open to the external environment. The other membrane the respiratory system has is serous membrane that lines body cavities which are NOT open to the external environment. pleural/serosa membrane around each lung.

17. Jason has appendicitis due to an infection. He is quickly rushed to the hospital to get an appendectomy. The diagnosis was missed and the appendix was left untreated. Why do you think this is life threatening? Explain your answer.

If the appendicitis infection is left untreated, it can cause injury and spread and burst into peritoneum to cause further infection that is life threatening that can cause organ failure.

18. What are the 3 different types of muscles? What does it mean when a muscle is involuntary? Out of the three, which is involuntary?

1. Skeletal Muscle

2. Cardiac Muscle

3. Smooth Muscle

A muscle is involuntary when movement just occurs, it is only found in the heart, the cardiac muscle.

19. Name 3 different tissue types that are located in the body and list a function of each?

Connective tissue found everywhere in body/ connects body parts. Muscular tissue for movement that has muscle fibers. Nervous tissue regulates and controls body functions, neurons are specialized nerve cells that generate and conduct nerve impulses.

20. Name 3 different membranes that are located in the body and list a function of each?

Mucous membranes line cavities that are open to the external environment, mucous is released as a defense mechanism. Serous membranes (serosa) prevent friction between the layers. Connective tissue membranes (synovial membrane) line fibrous capsules surrounding joint/meninges that cover brain and spinal cord.

21. What is the difference between an exocrine and an endocrine gland? List an example of each.

Endocrine gland is duct less, secretes substances into bloodstream. Exocrine gland secretes substances through a duct.

22. Translate the following: a) Psuedo-stratified, squamous epithelium, b) simple, columnar epithelium c) stratified, cuboidal epithelium

a) Psuedo-stratified, squamous epithelium - Single layer that actually looks like multiple layers, flat layer

b) simple, columnar epithelium - Single layer that has a column/rectangular shape

c) stratified, cuboidal epithelium - Multiple layer with cubed shape

23. If you are treating a patient (with a medication for the last 10 days) and they are producing an excessive amount of mucus while they are on your treatment, what can you suspect? Explain your answer?

They may be allergic to it manifested by the mucus being a defense mechanism or they are immune to the medication.

24. Jane was complaining of shortness of breath. She went hiking in the desert sun and became very hot. She perspired heavily during the entire hike and had to change her work-out clothing when she reached her car. When she arrived home, she could barely talk because her mouth was so dry and she was extremely thirsty. Jane was rushed to the emergency room and given intravenous saline. Saline is isotonic with the blood. What is an isotonic solution and why was she given saline? Explain your answer.

Isotonic solution was administered to Jane to rehydrate her cells and help reach equlibrium with the same solvent/solute. Jane while hiking was sweating as a homeostasis to keep cool in the hot sun. She lost a lot of electrolytes from the sweat including water from her body, her RBC cells started to shrink and her body needed to replenish its electrolyte imbalance, isotonic solution is similar in pH to blood alkalinity to help replenish the RBCs and cause homeostasis to occur again.

Does this occur via mitosis or meiosis:

Repair of injured wound

Occurs by mitosis

Does this occur via mitosis or meiosis:

Process of fertilization


Does this occur via mitosis or meiosis:

Hair growth


Does this occur via mitosis or meiosis:

Sperm development


Does this occur via mitosis or meiosis:

Chemotherapeutic agents damage