Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

165 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

3 loose Connective Tissues: _ _ & _?




3 dense Tissues __ & _?

Elastic-has give.

Hyaline cartilage-supports and reduces friction.


Lipids are ________molecules.


Cell bodies joined together are _________?


Any cell that intercepts a signal is a __?

Target cell

Dermis is highly _____?


Fibrous/strong & temp regulation

Name for cells of the epidermis

Kertino cytes

Melano cytes

Merkel cytes

Langerhans cells

DNA consists of: Nucleotides

and one of four bases what are they____?

Thymine w Adenine

Cytosine w Guanine

Adenine goes with Thymine-

Cytosine goes with Guanine-

Cell death is ___?

Cell suicide is ___?



Goblet cells produces_____?

Mucus/sweat glands

Pancreas what type cells _______?


Which Nervous System has a gang?

P N S (Gang) ganglia

(Punks on the North Side)

What cells line spinal cord and Ventricle

Ependymal Cells

Autocrine cell that does this_________?

Automatically acts on itself.......Autocrine

Sweat glands rhymes with nicotine...

Apocrine...ok, kinda.


Co-transport like a bus crossing a street

except it crosses the gutter-

Gut by epithelial cells.

Diffusion is DDP________what does that mean?

Defusion/Depolarization & passive.

When does the contraction begin _____?

Latent period

I and H bands are like hair

Because they constrict...

Where does brain matter communicate?

into the brain by

myelated and unmyelated.

descending out.

Grey matter is ________________?

Neuron cell bodies...

Where does a stroke happen?

In the brain...blockage, weak arteries, burst artery.

What enzyme tells that a person had a stroke?


Radical molecule is ____?


RNA Adenine necleotide compliments ________?

Uracel-sounds like duracell battery.

K+ opens or closes for repolarization?

K+ opens for RE re re re -repolarization

Muscle cell membrane receptors are called?

Nicotinic---muscle ( smoking muscle)

Stomach is drained through?

Spleen is drained through?

Stomach R & L Gastric veins

Splenic vein.

Calcium pump moves with or against gradient?


Collogen prevents ____?


Lymph system is open or closed for business?

Open and ready to serve!

Interstitual fluid-carried by ___?

Lymph ststem-Collects/transports at capillaries in circulatory system and directed vessels-thoracic duct connects to superior vena cava, returns fluid to heart and circulatory..

Layers of digestive mucosa_____________?



muscularis enterna (circular)



List the 3 sublayers of mucosa

Epithelium lamina

Propria muscularis


Sodium causes AChe___________?

Atp & Ca+ necessary for muscle contraction


What happens when Ion pump ceases to function?

Rigor mortis sets in

Titan causes ___?

Elastic force

If muscles run out of atp they-don't relax why?

Tetanus sets in

Recovery time for muscles is ___?

15 mins

What is a muscle at rest?

Muscle tone...naturally.

70% of muscle energy can be ___?


Na- K pump moves ______________gradient?

against concentration gradient

Chemo receptors sense __________________?

Change in pH

Ca & Na are found in or out of cell ____?


Calcium binds to ________?


Many axons together make a ___?


A Group of tissue make a ___________?


Describe to variables that change the rate of


Concentration of the gradient and the size of the material

All or none is also called ____?

Absolute refractory period

Threshold is the voltage that must be released

in order to generate ?

Action potential

What is adaptive immunity?

Humoral/Slow & selective

Cell mediated immunity

B and T lymphocytes have a memory

What is an innate immunity?

1st line of rapid cellular defense

physical and chemical barrier

Mast cells secrete?


4 cardinal signs of inflammation?


Never let monkeys eat bananas>>


Most abundant Lymphocyte is?


Steps of phagocytosis or Aide?





What is mac? and what's it do to invading virus?

Membrane attach complex

means-compliment system

it digs a pore then rushes in to burst cell.

B cells are where?

What do they do?

B-cells originate in the bone marrow

Wait for invasion of foreign substance.

T cells are where?

What do they do?

Thymus-Cortisol- Hemopoietic stem cells.

it attacks..graduates to lymph for invasion

Interferon enters extracelluar fluid to do what?

Waits in cell for virus then, breaks down RNA-inhibits protein synthesis

aka(natural killer) It invades cell to produce Inactive enzymes...

What is the Natural killer cell's duty

Kills them by the insertion of granules containing perforin.

a lymphocyte able to bind to certain tumor cells and virus-infected cells without the stimulation of antigens.

Perforin : The cytolitic protein- found where?

found in the granules of Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and NK cells.

Upon degranulation, perforin inserts itself into the target cell's plasma membrane, forming a pore.

What is an epitope and what is it's purpose?

Epitopes can be composed of sugars, lipids or amino acids.

In most cases, epitope tags are constructed of amino acids.

An epitope is a portion of a molecule to which an antibody binds.

What is an antigen where are they found?

An antigen may be a foreign substance from the environment, such as chemicals, bacteria, viruses, or pollen.

An antigen may also be formed inside the body, as with bacterial toxins or tissue cells.

What are B cell antigen receptors called?

What are T cell antigen receptors called?

Where do they bind?

B cell receptor (BCR)

T cell receptor (TCR) ... This site binds to a portion of the antigen called an antigenic determinant or epitope.

What anti-body is the natural killer?

The Interferon-aka(natural killer)

It invades cell to produce Inactive enzymes...

Enzymes are large protein molecules produced by?

Body cells

Enzymes are biological catalyst that increase ?

Chemical reaction w/o becoming part of the product

digestive enzymes are called?

hydrolytic enzymes or hydrolases--think molasses

Hydrolases breaks down organic food molecules also called?

substrates-by adding water

subtrates are highly specific

Subtrate has a pocket or aka___?

ACTIVE SITE or temp holding place-til catalysis to weak non covalent bonds..ionic or hydrogen bonds.

Starch is digested and becomes....


Starch is a polysaccaride found in __?

plants, where it is used to store energy..

cellulose is a polysaccaride which provides rigidity to ___?

Cell walls.

It is a polymer of glucose (like starch) but made differently.

Pepsidase breaks down ?

is a pancreatic enzyme that breaks down


Starch is broken down by__?


The only enzyme that can break cellulose is_?

Cellulase a digestive bacteria

Peptides are two or more amino acids that?

link together make peptide bond.

Big chief cells are in the stomach glands and secrete?

a protein digesting enzyme called pepsin.

Pepsin hydrolyzes ____?????

peptide bonds.

Fats and oils are called ___?

Tri glycerides aka (lipids)..

and they clump together--think fat thighs cottage cheese.

Bile salts help digest ____?

triglycerides to physically emulsify lipids-

bile is like a detergent/separates lipid clumps therefore/increasing surface area.

Bile salts are not secreted in the _? & _?

Mouth (lingual lipase) and stomach (gastric lipase)

End products of fat digestion are ___?


Stroma is a ______________?


The supportive tissue of an epithelial organ, tumor, gonad, etc., consisting of connective tissues and blood vessels

Testosterone is synthesized from ___?

Cholestrol-produced by interstitual cells of Leydig.

What are Islet F cells?

They are PP cells. Think (Foul-PeePee)

which produce pancreatic polypeptide and delta cells (somatostatin) in the Islets of Langerhans.

What does Greater Momentum look like?

Looks like a apron.


A peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein.

What is the rarest blood type?


AB is the ______recipient?

Universal recipient

2nd most common type blood is ___?


Universal donor?


Has >>no A or B antigens.

Sympathetic stimulation __?


Left Ventricle send blood via ___?

Semi lunar valve.

A person without Rh factor is pos/neg?

RH negative

Heart rate is controlled by __?


Blood from the lungs goes where___?

Left Atrium

Who can receive type A blood?

A and AB

What type of blood is preferred and why?

Negative-it does not have RH factor

What circulation in the left ventricle ---?


Largest chamber with thick wall?

Left Ventricle

What circulation does Rt Atrium have?


What antibody for AB__?

NOne! does not develop A or B antibody

Antibody for O is ____?

A & B

What type of blood can AB receive_?


THINK>>> All Blood

What send blood via tricuspid valve?

Superior Vena Cava & inferior VC.

Right side vessels of the heart ____?

Deoxegenated blood

Sertoli Cell IV aides in production of __?

Inhibin>>which stimulates Oxetocin

Sertoli I is in the front lines of defense why ___?

Serves as a Blood and Testes barrier.

What causes ovalation and on what day ?

LH (hormone) and on the 14th day

Adrenal cortex has 2 them _?

ADH Antidiuretic/Aldosterone

Drinking alcohol-Exercise-Poisoning-diarrhea_?




2 examples of amino base hormones ___?


Pancreas is ___________ & ______________?

Endocrine & ExoCrine

During normal breathing air moves in and out of much?

500ml---------tidal vol

Male duct system.....pathway

Seminiferous tube-

epididymus (efferent tube)

Ductus deferenes

ductus urethra

Oogenesis is the same as spermagenesis except?

Ovum is produces in OOgenesis

Lysosome breaks down ?



Protein in egg

Beta 2 adergenic----Characteristics

in skeletal muscle

Actin shapes what?


Alpha 1 adergenic______characteristic ?

Alpha 1-Vaso constriction and skin, blood vessels gastic, kidneys.

Gastrin inhibits ?

pancreatic enzymes-

Gastric juice contains....?

HCL, pepsinogen, and vit k

Parietal cells secrete?


Ileum contains what?

Peyers patch

Gallbladder has ____?

CCK receptor..which causes contractions..

adipose contains what receptor?


CCk travels where?

through pyloric sphinter to sm intestine.

Max air vol is___?

Vital to breathing...vital capacity

Amt of air forcefully exhaled after...normal expiratory is?

Expiratory reserve vol

Nebulin regulates what?

size of actin filaments.

Gallstones are made of what substance?


Dud, je, Ilium....order or what?

Small intestines..

Amalyse is produced by _?

Salivary glands

Phagocytic Kuffer cells line what?

Sinusoids of liver

Tunic Externa has what kind of muscle?

Smooth in a singular layer.

Tunic submucosa contains...what?

blood supply

Glucagon is produced where?

Islets of Langerhans.

REnin is produced where?

Juxtaglomerer apparatus

Macula densa recognizes

Need for Renin

Insulin deficiency is called__?

Diabetes mellitus

Zona Fasciculata contains......?

anti inflammatory--glucocortizones..

TSH is produced where?

Hypophysis-pit gland

T4 Thyroxine...T4 secreted by

Thyroid gland

Cholergenic means ?

drug has same effect as ACEtylcholine

Antidote for overdose of cholergenic drug?


Factors (hormones)that influence RBF & GFR

despite auto regulation

Angiotensin II prostaglandes, NO, Endothelium-ATP,Bradyinin adensine,

Renal Blood flow-Ra-IA-Aa-IA-Aa

Renal artery, interlobular artery, arcuate artery interlobular arteriole, afferent arteriole.

Renal Medulla

collecting duct-pyramids, papilla, minor calyx major calyx,renal pelvis

Kidneys secrete__?

erythropoietin (stem cells)

Capillaries to>>>


Peritubular capillaries to>>>

Vasa recta> concentrated urine

Thick segment of loop of Henle contains __?

Macula densa necessary for (nephron function)

Short loops of Henle are ___?

Cortical nephrons

Calcitrol is made in the ___?

kidneys- its the most important form of Vit D

Duct of Bellini is what?

collecting duct

Flow from collecting duct to ureter-CPPMM(rp)

Collecting duct, pyramids, papilla, minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis.

What is vesicoureteral reflex?

urine is sent backwards to ureter.

3 hormones that constrict renal blood vessels

Epineprinen norepineprine, Endothelin (peptide)

How does the body compensate for change/resistance of the afferent arteriole?

2 ways/Renal sympathtic arterioles cause vasocontriction and angiotensin II effects both afferent and efferent arterioles.

What is Malt?

The tonsils, the Peyer patches within the small intestine, and the vermiform appendix are examples of MALT.

Mucus associated Lymph tissue