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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Death of a soft tissue, such as muscle, that results from interruption of its blood supply.
A tumor consisting of muscle tissue.
Softening of a muscle
Any abnormal condition or disease of muscle tissue
Inflammation of muscle fibers.
Increased muscular excitability and contractility with decreased power of relaxation; tonic spasm of the muscle.
Loss or impairment of motor (muscular) function resulting from a lesion of nervous or muscular origin.
Volkmann's contracture
permanent shortening of a muscle due to replacement of destroyed muscle fibers with fibrous connective tissue that lacks the ability to stretch
groups of common nonarticular rheumatic disorders characterized by pain, tenderness and stiffness of muscles, tendons and surrounding tissues
muscular dystrophies
inherited muscle-destroying diseases which are characterized by degeneration of individual muscle fibers, which leads to the progressive atrophy of the skeletal muscle
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
most common form of muscular dystrophy; sex-linked; dystrophin (a protein present in the sarcolemma of normal muscle fibers) in absent in persons with this disease
myasthenia gravis
a weakness of skeletal muscles; caused by an abnormality at the neuromuscular junction that partially blocks contraction (antibodies block ACh receptors)
a sudden involuntary contraction of a single muscle in a large group of muscles
a rhythmic, involuntary, purposeless contraction of opposing muscle groups
an involuntary, brief twitch of a muscle visible under the skin
a spasmodic twitching made involuntarily by muscles that are ordinarily under voluntary control
an involuntary, brief twitch of a muscle that is detected by electromyography and is not visible under the skin
What are the three types of muscle tissue?
1.skeletal (straited, voluntary)
2.cardiac (straited, involuntary)
3.smooth (nonstraited, involuntary)
What are the four functions of muscle tissue?
1. Motion
2. Movement of substances within the body
3. Stabilizing body positions and regulating organ volume
4. Thermogenesis (generating heat)
What are the five principal characteristics of muscle tissue?
1. Excitability (the ability to respond to certain stimuli by producing action potentials)
2. Conductivity (ability to conduct action potentials)
3. Contractility (ability to shorten or thicken)
4. Extensibility (muscle can be stretched)
5. Elasticity (return to its original shape after contraction)
What are the three layers of connective tissue that surround skeletal muscle?
epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium
a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue around muscles and other organs of the body
superficial fascia
a sheet of fibrous connective tissue between the dermis of the skin and the deep fascia of the muscles
deep fascia
dense, irregular connective tissue that lines the body wall and limbs and holds muscles together
outermost layer of connective tissue that encircles the whole muscle
connective tissue that surrounds bundles of 10-100 or more individual muscle fibers
penetrates into the interior of each fascicle and separates individual muscle fibers
a cord of dense connective tissue that attaches a muscle to the periosteum of a bone
a sheetlike tendon joining one muscle with another or with bone
an inflammation of the tendons, tendon shealths, and synovial membranes surrounding certain joints
motor neurons
neurons that stimulate muscle to contract
motor unit
a motor neuron plus all the skeletal muscle fibers it stimulates
the functional junction between two neurons or between a neuron and an effector, such as a muscle or gland
synaptic cleft
the narrow gap that separates the axon terminal of one neuron from another neuron or muscle fiber and across which a neurotransmitter diffuses to affect the postsynaptic cell
neuromuscular junction
the particular type of synapse formed between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle fiber
the plasma membrane of a muscle cell
the muscle fiber's cytoplasm
contractile element of muscle cells; a threadlike structure, running longitudinally through a muscle fiber consisting mainly of thick filaments (myosin) and thin filaments (actin, troponin, and tropomyosin)
sliding filament mechanism
the explanation of how thick and thin filaments slide relative to one another during straited muscle contraction to decrease sarcomere length