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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What are pacemaker potentials caused by?

PP refers to no resting membrane potential. HCN channels prevent the cells from having a "resting membrane potential"

What are "hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide channels"?

proteins that pacemaker cells make, that cause the pacemaker potential

Why are cardiac myoctyes unable to summate?

because of the prolong refractory period caused by Voltage Gated Ca++ Channels (Plateu Phase)

What's a compensatory Pause and how can you identify on an ECG?

It is the long pause after a PVC, you can see a long flat line after a PVC on an ECG

What does the pacemaker potential refer to?

no resting membrane potential caused by HCN channels

What are capacitance vessels and what do they do?

They are the veins, that hold most of the blood volume in the body.

What happens while you are in oxygen debt?

You keep breathing heavily to replace the O2 used from the myoglobin and finish any conversion of molecules in the process of being converted to ATP

What is glomerular (ultrafiltrate)?

Does it just refer to that everything of blood (except for RBCs and proteins) get filtered out?

What are the functions of Type I Alveolar Cells?

They structurally make up the alveoli.

What role do acidic molecules play in exercise?

They contribute to Central Fatigue and cause the oxyhemoglobin curve to shift to the right.

Does urea get reabsorbed at the collecting duct?


Do free H+ ions get secreted or do they form with any other molecule and get urinated out?

They do get secreted and they do combine with phosphates and ammonia ions to be "urinated out".

What do you mean that most organs have dual innervation?

That means that most organs have both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation.

Does the anatomical nervous system affect stroke volume by causing stronger or weaker contractions of the heart via the release of noroepinephrine/ epinephrine or acetylcholine respectively?

Only stronger contractions by release of epinephrine.

tidal volume

the amount of air moved in/out of the lungs (~500 mL)

Inspiratory Reserve Volume

the additional amount of air the is forcefully inhaled after normal tidal volume (~3100 mL)

Expiratory Reserve Volume

additional air that is forcefully exhalled after expiration of normal tidal volume (~1200 mL)

Residual Volume

volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximal exhalation - 1200ml - note residual volume is made up of space in alveoli and the anatomical dead space or conducting zone

Total Lung Capacity

volume of gas that is contained in the lungs at the end of maximal inspiration -6000ml

Vital Capacity

maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a maximum inhalation. it is equal to the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume.- 4800ml