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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
list the primary endocrine organs
1. hypothalamus
2. pituitary gland
3. pineal gland
4. thyroid gland
5. parathyroid gland
6. thymus
7. adrenal gland
list the parts of the pituitary gland
anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary
list the parts of the adrenal gland
adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla
TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, GH, prolactin
anterior pituitary gland
ADH, oxytocin
posterior pituitary gland
trophic hormones (releasing and inhibiting hormones)
hypothalamus
secretes melatonin
pineal gland
secretes thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3); calcitonin
thyroid gland
PTH
parathyroid gland
thymosin, thymopoietin
thymus
aldosterone, cortisol, androgens
adrenal cortex
epinephrine & NE
adrenal medulla
list the primary endocrine glands in other organs
1. pancreas
2. ovaries/testes
3. placenta
produces insulin, glucagon
pancreas
estrogen & progesterone (females)/ androgens (testosterone) (males)
ovaries/testes
estrogen & progesterone, hCG
placenta
list the secondary endocrine organs
GI organs, heart, kidneys, liver, skin
GI hormones, ANP, erythropoietin, vitamin D3, etc.
GI organs, heart, kidneys, liver, skin
part of the brain (diencephalon), controls the pituitary gland
hypothalamus
major endocrine gland; infundibulum attaches to hypothalamus
pituitary gland
attaches to hypothalamus
infundibulum
-neurohypophysis
-direct NEURAL CONNECTION to hypothalamus
-neurosecretory cells originate in hypothalamus, axons in infundibulum, axon terminals in posterior pituitary secrete neurohormones
-ADH (vasopressin) and oxytocin
posterior pituitary gland
-CIRCULATORY CONNECTION to hypothalamus via HYPOTHALAMIC-HYPOPHYSEAL PORTAL SYSTEM
-neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus secrete releasing hormones into portal system which control anterior pituitary secretion
-secretes trophic hormones that control other endocrine glands and tissues
anterior pituitary gland
TRH + TSH = ?
thyroid gland --> TH
CRH + ACTH = ?
adrenal cortex --> cortisol
GnRH + FSH & LH = ?
ovaries/testes
GHRH + growth hormone = ?
liver, bone, muscle, etc., protein synthesis
PRH + prolactin = ?
breasts
inhibits hypo and anterior (hormone 3)
long loop negative feedback
anterior inhibits hypo (tropic hormone 2)
short loop negative feedback
tell me what you know about the thyroid gland
1. production of thyroid hormones T3 and T4 (thyroxine)
2. effects of thyroid hormones
3. feedback control of thyroid hormone secretion
effects of thyroid hormones
-increase basal metabolic rate
-stimulate protein synthesis
-developmental effects: nervous and reproductive systems
what contains mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens?
adrenal cortex
-connection to sympathetic ANS
-chromaffin cells secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine
-epi and NE act via adrenergic receptors on target cells
adrenal medulla
constriction of blood vessels
alpha-adrenergic receptors
increase in heart rate and contractility
beta 1 adrenergic receptors
bronchodilation
beta 2 adrenergic receptors
endocrine portion consists of pancreatic islets
pancreas
secrete insulin, most abundant
beta cells
secrete glucagon, somewhat less abundant
alpha cells
these are major actors in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis
insulin and glucagon
-stimulates glucose uptake (facilitated diffusion) into most body cells
-stimulates synthesis of glycogen, protein, and lipids (energy storage)
-decreases plasma glucose concentration
insulin
-stimulates glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in liver (releases glucose into blood)
-stimulates lipolysis in adipose tissue (mobilizes energy stores, spares glucose)
-increases plasma glucose concentration
glucagon
insulin deficiency disease
diabetes mellitus
insulin dependent (IDDM), "juvenile onset"
type 1 diabetes
non-insulin dependent (NIDDM), "adult onset"
type 2 diabetes
high blood glucose levels
hyperglycemia
excretion of glucose in the urine, osmotic effect results in excessive urinary water loss (diuresis)
glycosuria
effects and complications of diabetes mellitus
-hyperglycemia
-glycosuria
-elevate ketones and ketoacidosis
--cells are "glucose starved" because of insufficient glucose uptake
--->increased fat and protein catabolism --> excess production of ketone bodies
-vascular degeneration
promotes Na+ retention and K+ excretion by kidneys, zona glomerulosa
mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)
"stress hormones", promote gluconeogenesis, anti-inflammatory, zona fasciculata
glucocorticoids (cortisol)
for example, testosterone
androgens
secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine
chromaffin cells