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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

list the four nucleotides found in mRNA

adenine,uracil,guanine, cytosine

explain the difference between intron and exon

extron-coding segment

intron-excess bases 0 coding

describe the role of tRNA in protein assembly

carries amino acids to mRNA for translation

describe the events of protein translation that occur on the surface of a ribosome

1) mRNA leaves nucleus

2)mRNA ataches to ribosome

3)tRNA with appropriate anticodon carries in specific amino acid

4)adjacents amino acids are linked by peptide bonds

5)a termination sequence is reaches

describe the pathway that leads to the secretion of proteins from cells

From the RER to the lumen of ER

transport vesicles then move them to Golgi complex

Packaged for transport

list the four factors that influence the rate of a chemical reaction and state whether increasing the factor increase/decrease the reaction




[ ] of cofactors and coenzymes:

[ ] of enzyme and substrate

5 characteristics of enzymes

1) structure determines function

2) 3D shape

3) not changed by reaction

4) don't change the nature of reaction

5) lower the activation energy of the reaction

list three ways to alter the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction

1)catalytic rate


3) enzyme-reactant activity

the triplet code G-T-A in DNa will be transcribed into mRNA as _______ and the anticodon in the tRNA corresponding to C-A-U is _____.



how does a chemical catalyst increase the rate of a reaction

by decreasing the energy of activation

RNA synthesis from a DNA template is called


which of these are functions of the Golgi apparatus

modifying proteins synthesized on ribosomes associated with granular endoplasmic reticulum and allowing the distribution of modified proteins throughout the cell in vesicles

free ribosomes differ from membrane-bound ribosomes in the free ribosomes specialize in synthesizing proteins for export(secretion) from the cell


consider the reaction:

H2CO3 -> CO2 + H2O + 4 kcal/mol

what is true about this?

the reaction is catabolic and the energy content of the products are equal to that of the reactant

temperature within optimum range will?

slow the reaction

inhibitor present will?

slow the reaction

ample number of coenzymes will?

speed the reaction

the substance upon which an enzymes acts is called a


in living organisms, catalysts are______

enzymes and proteins

list the steps of translation in the correct order as they occur:

A) tRNA anticodon binds to complementary mRNA codon

B) new amino acid is linked to the growing peptide chain

C) ribosome binds to mRNA

D) tRNA released from ribosome, available to pick up another amino acid


phosphorylation involves

addition of phosphate group

indicate the difference between human DNA and RNA

RNA contains ribose whereas DNA contains deoxyribose

RNA consists of only one nucleotide chain whereas DNA is a double helix

what is the function of DNA? RNA?

DNA codes for proteins

RNA carries the blueprint for proteins to ribosomes to be made into proteins

what is the characteristic of codons?

-are base triplets

-code for amino acids

-are complementary to anicodons

-are 3-base sequences of mRNA

the genetic information in a mRNA molecule is translated into proteins on cellular components called____

Free ribosomes-produce proteins for inside cell

Membrane-bound proteins-produce proteins for outside cell

the process of influencing chemical bonds to lower the activation energy of a reaction is called?


the type of RNA molecule that acts as the link between an amino acid and the mRNA codon is the ______


the Golgi apparatus packages cellular products that will be exported from the cell into structures called?

secretory vesicles

with reference to catalytic reactions the lock-and-key model refers to the fact that the active site of ________ perfectly fits the ______ just like a specific key fits into a lock



what statements are true regarding the naming of enzymes

names end with an "ase"

names are based on the job or role of the enzyme

ribosomes play an important role in transcription.


consider the following scenario:

two reactants, A and B, combine to form product C. Under the correct conditions, C can degrade back to A and B. this entire scenario is an example of a _______ chemical reaction.


the information coded in the total DNA of an organism is referrers to as its ______


the process of reading an mRNA molecule and synthesizing the protein encoded in its nucleotide sequence is known as _______


what is true about the regulation of enzyme activity in cells?

cells do not regulate the activity of enzymes

in an enzymatic reaction, substrates on one side of the equation are converted into _____, but the enzyme remains unaltered.


reactions in which organic molecules are synthesized out of smaller precursor molecules are referred to as ______ reactions.


catabolism is?

the breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones

RNA directly involved in producing proteins are : ribosomal RNA, _____RNA and ____RNA

tRNA and mRNA

the rate of enzyme-mediated reactions can be changed by?

a change in enzyme activity

a reaction in which a portion of a complex molecule is transferred to ADP to form ATP is referred to as __________


a 3-base sequence of mRNA is called a _____


the sum of all chemical reaction occurring in the body is termed


the most general term used to describe the process of formation or degradation of molecules is _______ reaction


if someone were to mention "lock-and-key" in reference to enzymes, you would know that she means that:

the enzyme will only work with a specific substrate

DNA is a polymer of ________


nucleosides are composed of ______ and ______

sugar and nitrogenous base