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321 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What acts as a trigger for initiation of Micturition?

Stretching of bladder wall

Reason for dec of kidney function in older adults?

Kidney atrophy

Organs affected by hyperthyroidism?







Effect of Hyperthyroidism on Liver?

-inc LDL

-inc cholestrol

-elevated triglycerides

Effect of Hyperthyroidism on Intestines?


-dec GI activity

Effect of Hyperthyroidism on reproductive system

-dec fertility

-menstrual abnormalities

-may harm development of infant

Effect of Hyperthyroidism on Brain?


-dec concentration

-general lack of interest

Effect of Hyperthyroidism on Heart?

-dec heart rate

-inc/dec blood pressure

-dec cardiac output

Effect of Hyperthyroidism on kidneys?

-dec function

-fluid retention and edema

Type of edema that develops in hyperthyroid patients?


Features of Cushings Syndrome?

-buffalo torso

-moon face

-masculinizing effects

- inc blood glucose level

-inc blood cortisol level

-inc urinary sec of 17 hydroxysteroids



-blurry vision

-female balding

-water retention

-menstrual abnormalities

-purple striae

-thin skin and bruising

-poor wound healing


-severe depression

-cognitive difficulties

-sleep disorders


How thyroid hormones are synthesized?

1. Iodine trapping(iodide pump)

2. Formation and aecretion of thyroglobulin

3. Oxidation of iodide

4. Iodination of tyrosine (organification of tyrosine)

Iodine trapping in synthesis of thyroid hormones?

Active transport of iodide from ECF into thyroid follicular cells and then into follicles

Formation and secretion of thyroglobulin on synthesis of thyroid hormones?

ER and golgi apparatus of thyroid follicular cells form and secrete a glycoprotein called thyroglobulin into follicles, containing 70 tyrosine amino acid residues. T3 and T4 are formed as parr of thyroglobulin

Oxidation of Iodide in synthesis of thyroid hormones?

Removal of electron. Iodide I- is oxidized to l2 in thyroid follicles. This process is accelerated by peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide.

Filtration fraction?

Ration of glomerular filtrate rate GFR to renal plasma flow RPF

Value of GFR?

125ml/min or 180litre/day

Function of Urinary Sysyem

- maintains homeostasis by controllong tje composition, volume and pressure of blood

-regulates blood glucose levels

-produces hormones

-maintains blood osmolarity

Functoon of angiotensin ll

Constrict areterioles and inc blood pressure

Function of juxtaglomerular apparatus?

Regulate BP and rate of blood filtration by kidneys

Normal plasma calcium Level

9.8 to 11.5mg/dl

Endocrine function of pancreas?

Pancreas secretes 2 hormones:

1. Insulin (beta cells) : promotes glucose entry in many cells and in this way promotes carb metabolism

2. Glucagon (alpha cells) : inc synthesis and release of glucose from liver into body fluids

Hormones which control sperm formation?






Actions of testosterone during fetal life?

1.Differentiation and development of secondary sex organs:

Leydig cells of testes sec teatosterone at 7th to 9th wks of gestation > ++wolfian duct > internal genitalia in male

2. Helps descend of testes from abd cavity into scrotum during last 2 to 3 months of pregs

Control of Propulsive movements of small intestines?

Peristalsis in small intestine is controlled by following nervous and hormonal factors :

-stretching of duodenal wall

-gastroenteric reflex

-gastrin, insulin, cck, motilin amd serotonin enhances motility

-secretin and glucagon inhibits motility

Effect of parasympathetic stimulation on GIT?

Autonomic control: inc GIT activity

-cranial portion by vagus nerve

-sacral portion by 2nd, 3rd and 4th pelvic splanchnic nerve

-postganglionic neurons are located in myenteric and submucosal plexus.


>inc peristalsis and tone

>relaxes sphincters

>inc digestive secretions

Whichlayer of retina becomes impaired in nyctalopia?

Pigmented layer as vit A is stored in this layer.

Layer of rods as vit A is involved in formation of retinal and rhodopsin

Analgesia system?

Brain can suppress input of pain signals to nervous system by activating a pain control system called the analgesia system

Drugs used to treat Parkinson's?



-transplanted fetal dopamine cells

-by destroying part of the feedback circuitary

Features of cerebellar disease?

1.Dysmetria and ataxia

2. past pointing

3. Dysdiadochokinesia

4. Dysarthia

5. Intention tumor

6. Cerebellar nystagmus

7. Asthenia

8. Hypotonia

Typea of functions of kidney?

1. Excretory

2. Regulatory

3. Synthetic

4. Endocrine

Epithelium forming urinary bladder?

Transitional epithelium

How does alcohol act as diuretic?

Inhibits release of ADH

What is the salt level monitoring part of nephron?

Macula densa

Cause of Parkinson's disease

Results from widespread destruction of that portion of the substantia nigra the (pars compacta) that sends dopamine secreting nerve fibres to the caudate nucleus and putamen

Types of intrafusal fibres

Nuclear bag fibres

nuclear chain fibres

Anterograde amnesia

Lesion of hippocampus and medial temporal lobe will cause inability to establish new long term memory of the type of information that are the basis of Intelligence

Retrograde amnesia

Inability to recall memories from the past


Inability to perform Rapid alternating movements

Cause of dwarfism

Insufficient growth hormone produced by the anterior pituitary

Enumerate hormones that take part in lactation





Functions of sertoli cells

They offer




5.mullerian inhibitory factor



Function of the placental estrogen

Maintains uterine lining

Stimulates mammary glands

Effect of sympathetic stimulation on git

-Inhibits GIT activity

-fibres originate in spinal cord between segments t5 to L2

-some fibres enter sympathetic chains and then pass to celiac ganglion a myenteric ganglion

Most of the post ganglionic neurones are in this ganglion

- innervates all the GIT security.

-secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine


> decrease peristalsis and tone

> contracts sphincters

>decrease digestive secretion

Consensual light reflex

Contraction in both eyes when light is shown in one eye

> cause

some of the fibres from pretectal nucleus of one side cross to the opposite side and end on the opposite edinger westphal nucleus

Types of memory?

Declarative or explicit

Non declarative or implicit

Explicit or Declarative Memory?

> it is associated with consciousness or at least awareness and is dependent on the hippocampus and other parts of the medial temporal lobes of brain for its retention

>events and Facts ,memory of surroundings, time relationship, cause meaning of experience

Implicit or non declarative memory?

Does not involve awareness and its retention does not usually involve processing in the hippocampus

>such as all the skills developed for hitting a tennis ball including automatic memory to sight the ball and calculate the relationship and speed of the ball to the racket

Location of primary motor cortex

The primary motor cortex lies in the first conversation of the frontal lobes interior to the central sulcus. it begins literally in the sylvian fissure, spreads repeatedly to the upper most portion of brain, and then takes deep into the longitudinal fissure

What is consolidation of memory

The short term memory, if activated repeatedly, will initiate chemical physical and Anatomical changes in the synapses that are responsible for the long term type of memory.

>this process requires 5 to 10 mins for minimal consolidation and 1 hr or more for string consolidation.

> rehearsal enhances the transference of short term memory into long term memory

What are the functions of CSF

1.Acts as a shock absorber

2.acts as a cushion between soft and delicate brain and rigid cranium

3.acts as a fluid buffer

4.acts as a reservoir to regulate contents of cranium

5.medium for nutritional exchange 6.removes metabolites

7.transports medicine

Effects of lesion in Broca's area

It causes motor aphasia. The person is capable of deciding what he want to say but cannot make the vocal system emit the words

Why does a person with cerebellar disease has difficulty in maintaining balance?

>Posterior spinocerebellar fibres receive muscle joint information from the muscle spindles, tendon organs and joint receptors of the trunk and lower limbs.

-This information regarding tension of muscles and joints is used by the cerebellum in the maintenance of posture

>anterior spinocerebellar tract provided the same information from upper and lower Limbs

>Cuneocerebellar tract provide information of muscle joint

>in cerebellar lesion, the cerebellum cannot comprehend this information and results in loss of balance

What are the decreasing factors of GFR?

1.Increased plasma colloid osmotic pressure

2.Increase bowman's capsule pressure

3.afferent arteriolar 🚧

4. Sympathatic simulation (because of afferent arteriolar constriction)

How is metabolic acidosis compensated

Increased H+ Ion concentration in metabolic acidosis > stimulates respiratory centre in medulla > increase rate of Pulmonary ventilation > excess CO2blown off >H+ ion conc dec to normal

What are the lines of Defence against changes in H positive Ion concentration of body fluids

The are three systems for regulation of acid base balance:

-Acid base buffer system

-Respiratory system

-Renal system

The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends mostly on permeability properties of?

Loop of henle

Urine passes through?

Pelvis of kidney







Which **** is associated with the Renal Corpuscle?


Fenestrated capillary

Efferent arteriole

An increase in the permeability of cells of collecting tubule to water is due to?

Increase in production of ADH

The kidneys are stimulated to produce Renin by?

A dec in blood pressure

Which artery lies on the boundary between cortex and medulla of kidney?

Arcuate artery

Difference between glomerulus and other capillaries of body?

Its drained by an efferent arteriole

Descending limb of loop of henle contains?

Fluid that becones more concentrated as it moves down into medulla

Movements in ureters?

Ureters are capable of peristalsis like GIT

Role of fatty tissue surrounding the kidney?

Stabilizes the position of kidneys by holding them in normal position

Renal corpuscle is made up of?

Bowman's capsule


Juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for?

Regulating rate of filtrate formation

Controlling systematic blood pressure

The chief source pushing water and solutes out of blood across filtration membrane is?

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure(glomerular blood pressure)

Histology of ureters?





Filtration membrane includes?

1. Glomerular endothelium

2. Podocytes

3. Basement membrane

Mechanism of water re absorption by renal tubules is?


Which is not absorbed by proximal convulated tubule?


Macula densa cells respond to?

Changes in solute content of filtrate

Most electrolyte re absorption by renal tubules is?

Hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments

Hormone responsible for facultative water reabsorption?


Disease caused by inadequate secretion of ADH by pituitary gland with symptoms of poly urea?

Diabetes inspidus

Specific Gravity or density of urine?

1.001 to 1.035

Sequence from formation of urine drop to its elimination from the body?

Nephron > collecting duct > minor calyx >major calyx > ureter > urethra

The parietal layer of glomerular capsule?

Simple squamous epithelium

What would happen if capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased was normal?

Net filtration would decrease

Which is a glomerular filtration rate control method?

- renal auto regulation

- neuronal regulation

- hormonal regulation

Parts of juxtaglomerular apparatus?

- granular cells

- macula densa

- mesangial cells

Tubular reabsorption by active mechanism usually involves?

Movement against an electrical and or chemical gradient

Reasons why substances are either not reabsorbed or are in completely reabsorbed from the nephron?

- they lack carriers

- they are not liquid soluble

- they are too large to pass through the fenestrations

Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids infiltrate is accomplished by?

Secondary active transport

Function of loop of henle?

Forms large volume of very dilute urine a small volume of very concentrated urine

Fetal Kidneys don't have to work very hard because?

Placenta allows the mothers urinary system to clear the waste from fetal blood

The factors favouring filtrate formation at glomerulus?

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure

If Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 milligram per 100ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 milligram per hundred ml,the amino acid?

Will appear in urine

If the clearance value of glucose is zero what does it mean?

Normally all glucose is reabsorbed

Excretion of dilute urine requires?

Impermeability of collecting tubule to water

Not a method by which the cells of renal tubules can raise blood PH?

By secreting sodium ions

In ascending Limb of loop of henle?

The thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

Kidneys develop from?

Urogenital ridges

Reabsorption of water is?

Hormonal control

Important hormone regulator's of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?

Angiotensin ll and Aldosterone

Cells of kidney that are chemoreceptors receptors that respond to changes in solute content of a filtrate?

Macula densa cells

Total body water can be measured by using Radioactive?

Water (tritium)

Glomerular filtration rate is increased with decreased?

Plasma colloid osmotic pressure

Percentage of filtered sodium reabsorbed in the proximal tubule is about?


The endogenous substance in the human body which can be used to measure glomerular filtration rate by renal clearance is?


The mechanism for excretion of concentrated urine involves?

- countercurrent multiplier mechanism

- countercurrent exchanger mechanism

- hyperosmolarity of renal medullary interstitium

- presence of antidiuretic hormone

Sodium concentration and osmolarity of extracellular fluid is controlled mainly by?


In metabolic alkalosis there is increased?

Plasma bicarbonate concentration

The pKa of acid in phosphate buffer is?


Features of atonic bladder?

> loss of sensory nerve fibres

> distended atonic bladder wall

> overflow dribbling

> tabes dorsalis

Neurotransmitter that inhibits postsynaptic neurone?


Sensory receptors which undergoes slow adaptation?

Free nerve endings

Function of muscles spindles?

Regulate length of 💪

In a patient having right sided hemisection of spinal cord on the contralateral side below the hemisection there is loss of?


Patient with cerebellar disease is not likely to have?

Static tremors

Courier is characterized by dancing flicking movements involving hand and face it is due to the lesion of?

Corpus striatum

Features of pyramidal tract?

> 30% of its fibres arise from primary motor area

> 30% of its fibres arise from pre motor and supplementary motor area

> it controls voluntary fine skills movements specially of distal parts of limb

> most of its fibres crossover to form medullary motor decussation

Features of primary motor area?

> upside down representation of body parts

> initiate voluntary movements

> contains a granular type of cerebral cortex

> brodmann's area 4 is present in it

Minimum separable distance for two points tactile discrimination is on?

Tips of fingers

Obligatory urine?


Labour is brought by?

Fetal ACTH

Fast pain is transmitted by which tract?

Dorsal column

Delta waves in sleep?

Stage 4

Spastic paralysis?


Hormone released from zona glomerulosa?


Two point discrimination is delivered by which tract?

Dorsal column

Gastrin is released from?

Pyloric gland of stomach

Glucose reabsorption occurs at?

Proximal tubule

Impedance Matching?

Footplate of stapes

Renin is secreted by?

JG cells

Post ovulatory phase of menstrual cycle?


Brodmann's area for taste and gustation?

3 and 4

Which hormone increases extracellular osmolarity?


Parietal cells secrete?

HCL and intrinsic factor

Eye focused in front of retina?


Intraocular pressure is maintained by?

Aqueous humor

Maximum production of sperm?


Water reabsorption does not occur in?

Ascending loop of henle

Parturation is brought about by?

Oxytocin and prostaglandins?

Stomach emptying?


Levi lorain dwarfism is caused by lack of?

Somatomedian c

Speech area?

Brocas area

45 year old patient fasting blood glucose level 135 increase appetite?

Diabetes type 2

Temperature is increased by the hormone?


Which hormone increases 2 days before ovulation


Renal blood flow?


Which lesion causes complete blindness in eye?

Optic nerve

Babinski sign?

Big toe dorsiflexion

Hormone increased in first trimester?


A D H acts on which part of kidney?

Distal convulated tubule and collecting duct

Ketoacidosis is found in?

Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus

Macula densa is part of?

1st part of distal tubule

Defecation reflex?

Parasympathetic reflex


Lower part of oesphogus ka stenosis

Inability to see the other side?

Optic tract compression

Wernicke's area?

Temporal lobe

Cause of presbyopia?

Protein denaturation

Semicircular canals can detect?

Velocity of angular acceleration

A speech disorder develops after head injury patient started feeling difficulty in uttering words. His speech became limited to a few words. There is most likely damage to?

Broca's area

Function of attenuation reflex?

Protects the inner ear from the damage by very loud sounds

Patient with right homonymous hemianopia is likely to have a lesion in?

Left optic tract

The retinal cells which generate action potential along the optic nerve fibres are?


The light rays coming from distant objects are focused in front of the Retina in?


The total refractive power of eye in diopters is


The effect of sympathetic stimulation mediated through beta-adrenergic receptors is?


REM sleep is characterized by?

> beta waves in EEG

> dreams which can be recalled

> irregular respiration

> Rapid movements of the eye

Functions of thalamus?

1. Acts as the main sensory relay centre

2. Has a role in the control of motor activity

3. Past of reticular activating system

4. Part of limbic system

In nerve deafness of right ear?

Weber's test is lateralized on the left side

The food containing and glutamate give the taste?


The hormone acting on the target cells through the activation of phospholipase C is?

Gonadotropin releasing hormone

Growth hormone decreases

Protein catabolism

Antidiuretic hormone secretion is stimulated by?

Increase osmolarity of body fluids

In patients of thyrotoxicosis or Graves disease there is decrease plasma level of?


Parathyroid hormone increases?

Renal tubular reabsorption of calcium

Cortisol decreases?

Blood lymphocyte count

Aldosterone secretion is greatly stimulated by?

Increased potassium ion concentration in extracellular fluid

60percent semen is formed by?

Secretion of seminal vesicles

If ovum is not fertilized, menstruation occurs. Why?

Reduction in estrogens and progesterone

The secretory changes in uterine endometrium and inhibition of uterine contraction is the function of?


In pregnancy there is inhibition of secretion of?

Anterior pituitary gonadotropins

Prolactin from the anterior pituitary causes?

Milk secretion in breast

PTH function on bone cells

Osteoclasts activity

Type of pain transmitted by dorsal column tract

Fast pain

Glucose reabsorption occurs at?

Proximal tubule

Impedance Matching by whichbone

Footplate of stapes

Cells in the action potential layer of retina

Ganglion cells

Post ovulatory phase of menstrual cycle by which hormone


Part damaged in parkinsonism

Substantia nigra

Brodmann area of taste


Effect of ADH on extracellular osmolarity


What does parietal cells secrete

HCL and intrinsic factor

plasma clearance of phosphate is brought about by


Hormone released from zona glomerulosa


Rennin is released from

JG cells

Filtration fraction increases

Oncotic pressure

Find touch and two point discrimination is transmitted by

Dcml system

Engorgement in erection occurs in

Corpora cavernosa

Movements in intestine

Segmentation and construction

In Impedance Matching role of stapes

Force of movement of stapes is increased

Role of aqueous humour

Maintains intraocular pressure behind lens

Acne formation in girl is brought about by

Adrenal androgens


Hand skills movement loss

Beta adrenergic

Cardio acceleration

Not in cerebellar lesion

Sensory loss

Main force of filtration

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure

Detection of horizontal acceleration

Macula of utricle

Refractive power in child

14 diopter

Lesion of right optic tract

Left homonymous hemianopia

Brainwave in a child when solving problems

Beta waves

Fast conducting pain fibre

A Alpha fibre

ADH injection for correction

Central DI

Hyperopia cause

Weak lens system

Factor increasing gastric motility


Pancreatic enzyme


Two point discrimination is transmitted by

Dorsal column sensation

Stapedius and tensor tympani role

Attenuation reflex

Mixing Movement in small intestine


Sensory Association area lesion effect

Inability to recognise opposite side of body

Pregnancy on menstrual cycle hormones


Growth retarded mentality normal

Pituitary dwarf

CSS formed in

Choroid plexus

Site of spermatogenesis

Seminiferous tubules


Green colour blindness

Magnet reflex

Supporting reflex

Hormone decreased in menopause


Premature ejaculation

Sympathetic loss

Alkaline secretions in ejaculatory fluid by


Effect of dopamine on prolactin secretion

Decreases prolactin secretion

Cause of a tonic bladder

Sensory loss

Messenger system for olfactory messenger


Plasma bicarbonate increases in

Metabolic alkalosis

Pain releasing ****


Intracellular water amount

28 litre water

Insulin decreases in


Angular acceleration is detected by

Semicircular canals

Muscle length organ

Muscles spindle

Writhing is caused by a lesion in

Globus pallidus

Effect of parasympathetic stimulation on pupil

Construction of pupil

Infarct of internal capsule results in

Contralateral spastic chronic paralysis

Mid collicular section of midbrain

Decerberate rigidity

Hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia


Natural compounds for measuring GFR in the body


7 ketosteroids

Adrenogenital syndrome

Snellen chart is for

Visual acuity

Big hands and feet in 30 year old


Amount of CSF


Function of progesterone on breasts

Alveolo lobular development

Unmyelinated fibres

Type c

Brain waves in non REM sleep

Beta waves

Which hormone causes stretch of cervix


Thyroxine c

Uncouplers produce heat

REM sleep is characterized by

- beta waves in EEG

- active dreaming

- Delta waves in EEG

- rapid eye movement

The permeability for urea in inner medullary collecting duct is increased by


Glomerular filtration rate is increased by


Reabsorption of sodium and chloride in distal tubules and collecting duct is increased by


Most of water reabsorption through renal tubules is by


The greatest amount of H+ secreted by proximal tubule is associated with

Excretion of potassium ion

In body Fluids phosphate buffer is qualitatively more powerful than bicarbonate buffer because it has

pKa value 6.8

The part of renal tubules impermeable to water is

Thick ascending Limb of loop of henle

Atonic bladder is characterized by

- destruction of sensory nerve supply

- loss of tone in bladder

- filling of bladder to to its capacity

- overflow incontinence

Sodium balance is regulated mainly by the control of amounts of sodium

Excreted in urine

Determination of the direction from which the sound comes is the function of

Auditory cortex

Sensory receptors which respond to rotation of head are present in

Crista ampullaris

Pitch perception of sound having frequency less than 2000 words in the organ of corti is due to

Volleys theory

After head injury patient develops speech defect there he can understand words but feels difficulty in a uttering the words speech is limited to a few words the patient is having damage to

Broca's area

During development of a high grade fever with chills and rigors there is


CSF secretion involves

Active transport of sodium ions

Loss of recent memory occurs when there is lesion of


The reflex having polysynaptic reflex arc is

Inverse stretch reflex

Receptors which undergo slow adaptation or are

Hair follicle receptors

Parkinson's disease is due to imbalance of neurotransmitters in basal ganglia these neurotransmitters are

Acetylcholine and dopamine

Insulin increases

Protein synthesis

Urinary excretion of vanllyl mandelic acid increases when there is increase secretion of


Testosterone decreases

Growth of hair on scalp

Release of human chorionic gonadotropin from placenta stimulates

Leydig cells of male testes

Serum fsh level increases when there is a low level of


Hormone producing growth of alveoli lobules and secretory changes in the breast is


Post ganglionic sympathetic cholinergic nerve fibres supply

Sweat glands

Fibres of DCML system decussate in

Medulla oblongata

Fovea of eye

Highest visual acuity

Most of refraction in eye occurs at

Anterior surface of cornea

In conductive deafness effect on the affected ear

Webberz test is lateralized

Permeability of Urea in inner medullary collecting duct is increased by

A d h

In children when eyes are focused on an object the refractive power of lens is increased by

14 diopters

Retinal cells involved in lateral inhibition are

Horizontal cells

The bitter taste is maximally perceived on

Back of tongue

Pathway of light reflex does not involve

Visual cortex

Effect of aldosterone on sodium reabsorption

Increases sodium reabsorption from distal part of renal tubules

Anti inflammatory action of cortisol is mainly due to

Stabilization of cellular lysosomal membrane

When a baby cycles mothers breast the hormone involved in milk ejection is


The growth hormone action on fatty acids

Increases utilisation of fatty acids for energy

Adrenocortical secretion of aldosterone is greatly increased with

Increase potassium concentration in extracellular fluid

Parathyroid hormone decreases

Excretion of calcium in urine

Gluconeogenesis is promoted by


During fetal life the development of brain is promoted mainly by

Thyroid hormones

Sensations carried by spinothalamic tract

- crude touch

- pin

- temperature

- tickle

Thalamus is involved in the control of

Autonomic nervous system

In sensory aphasia there is damage to

Wernicke's area

Aqueous humour has refractive index of


Left homonymous hemianopia is due to

Right optic tract

Secretion of growth hormone is increased by


Adrenal medulla secretes

More epinephrine and less Norepinephrine

In the blood glucocorticoid decrease the number of


Ketone bodies are formed in excess when there is deficiency of


A patient with an endocrine disorder has low potassium plasma level and alkalosis he is likely to have excess of


Receptors for thyroid hormones are located in


Sodium is reabsorbed from the baso lateral surface of Renal tubular epithelial cells by

Sodium hydrogen exchange

Water filter into renal tubules is maximally reabsorbed in

Proximal tubule

Total quantity of glomerular filtrate formed per day is

180 litres

Hypernatremia is present in

- addison's disease

- diarrhoea

- overdose of diuretics

- vomiting

If a man drinks 3 glasses of water there is inhibition of secretion of

A d h

In metabolic alkalosis there is increased

Plasma bicarbonate concentration

Filtration of Plasma proteins through the glomerella membrane is prevented mainly due to

Strong negative charge in proteoglycans of basement membrane

in metabolic acidosis there is decreased

Plasma bicarbonate concentration

The pyramidal tract contain fibres from

- primary motor area

- premoter area

- somatic sensory areas

- visual areas

Hormones derived from tyrosine

- dopamine

- epinephrine

- norepinephrine

- thyroxin and T3

Wffect of TSH thyroid gland?

1. Inc proteolysis of thyroglobulin that has already been stored in the follicles, resultong in releaae of thyroid hormones in circulating blood and diminishment of the follicular substance itself.

2. Inc activity of iodide pump which onc rate of iodine trapping in glandular cells,sometomes inc the ratio of intracellular to extracellular I conc in glandular substance to as much aa 8x normal.

3. Inc iodination of tyrosine to form thyroid hormones.

4. Inc size and sec activity of thyroid cells.

5. Inc in no of thyroid cells and change from cuboidal to colimnar cells and much infoldings of thyroid epitheliem into follicles.

Hence TSH inc all known sec functions of thyroid glandular cells

Effect of cortisol on protein metabolism?

1. Mobilizes amino acids from extra hepatic tissues eg muscles.

2. Inc amino acid conc in blood.

3. Inc transport of amino acids into hepatic cells for:

-inc protein synthesis

-inc gluconeogenesis

Regulation of Cortisol?

A) CRF a peptide sec by post medial basal hypothalamus > ACTH a peptide sec by ant pituitary gland > cortisol sec by adrenal cortex.

B) Different stresses eg trauma infection operation > cortisol sec by adrenal cortex.

C) Cortisol > negative feedback inhibiton of ACTH CRF.

D) Circadian rhythm sec rates of CRF ACTH and cortisol: high in early morning, low in late evening


loss of weight despite inc appetite

Intolerance to heat

Pulse rate 110/min

Prominent eyes

Swelling on ant side of neck


Hyperthyroidism (toxic goiter, thyrotoxicosis, graves)

Investigations for Hyperthyroidism?

Serum free T3 and t4 levels > high

TSH levels > low

Causes of Hyperthyroidism?

1. Autoimmunity > Long Acting Thyroid Stimulator LATS, an antibody >binds at the same receptors on thyroid cell membrane as TSH > inc sec of T3 and T4.

2. Localized adenoma in thyroid gland > inc sec of T3 and T4.

Physiological action of cortisol on carb metabolism?

A) stimulates gluconeogenesis in liver by metavlizing amino acids in extrahepatic tissues(muscles) and inc the enzymes of gluconeogenesis.

B) dec glucose utilization by cells by dec the oxidation of NADH2 required for glycolysis and bt dec the glucose transport into cells.

C) Imc blood glucose level by inc gluconeogenesis and dec glucose utilization.

Pathophysiology of chronic renal failure?

-Hypertension causes generalized edema due to salt and water retention.

-Dec in function of neurons >Inc in urea and other protein nitrogens such as creatinine which are the end products of protein metabolism must be remived from body, causes uremia > symptoms of uremia: nausea, vomiting, mental deterioration, confusion

-Acid accumulation in body fluids> budfering power used up > blood pH falls and patient will comatose> death if pH falls below 6.8

(body fluids can normally buffer 500 to 1000 millimoles of acid and phosphate compounds can buffer additional few thousand millomoles of acid)