• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Which kind of scanner can distinguish between different kinds of soft tissue?

CT scans

Name 2 advantages of using a CT scanner over a normal x-ray

3 dimensional image

high resolution

How can x-ays be used to take photographs?

They effect photographic film in the same way as light.

How can x-ray images be formed digitally?

Using a CCD. It is a small silicon chip which can detect x-rays and produce electronic signals which can be turned into high quality images.

How do X-rays pass through a body?

They are transmitted b healthy tissue but absorbed by bone and metal.

What characteristics do X-rays have?

High frequency

Short wavelength

How are x-rays used to treat cancer?

Focused on the tumour using a wide beam

Beam is rotated around the patient with the tumour at the centre.

How is the ionising effect of the x-rays stopped from damaging healthy cells?

Rotation with tumour at the centre

How do radiographers keep themselves safe from a high radiation dose?

lead aprons

Stand behind a lead screen

How are patients protected from radiation during X-ray scans?

Lead shielding on other areas of the body

Exposure time kept to a minimum

Can humans hear ultrasound waves


What is partial reflection?

Where a wave is both reflected and refracted from a boundary between 2 materials.

How does ultrasound imaging work?

Some of the wave is partially reflected back towards a detector at every boundary. The time taken for a signal to be received tells us how far away the boundary is.

Name 2 things ultrasound is used for in medicine.

Kidney stones

Pre-natal scanning

Explain how Kidney stones can be brocken down.

Ultrasound beam concentrates high energy waves onto the kidney stone and turns it into sand like particles which can be passed out through the urine.

Name 2 disadvantages of x-rays.

Ionising so can cause cancer

Only show pics of metal and bone

Say an advantage and a disadvantage of ultrasounds.

Non-ionising so safe

Fuzzy images

What are CT scans normally used for?

Diagnosing complicated illnesses.

What kind of waves are used to scan foetuses?


What are the top 3 sources of background radiation?

Radon gas

Cosmic rays

Food and drink

What is the electronic structure of an alpha particle?




What are beta particles?

High speed electrons emitted from the nucleus of an atom when a neutron decays into a proton.

What is the electronic structure of a beta particle?




What are gammer waves?

Electromagnetic waves emitted from the nucleus of an atom.

Define half-life.

The time it takes for half of the radioactive isotope nuclei to decay

What do the control rods do in a nuclear power plant?

Absorb neutrons to slow down the chain reaction.

What is an isotope?

An atom with the same number of protons but a different number of neurtons.

Which type of radiation is stopped by paper?


Which type of radiation is big, heavy and slow moving?


Which type of radiation is strongly ionising and why is this?

Alpha because it can knock of a lot of other atoms electrons before it slows down. This means that it creates a lot of ions.

Which type of particle moves QUITE fast and is QUITE small?


Which type of radiation is moderately ionising and has a long range in air?


For every B-particle emitted, what happens in the nucleus?

A neutron turns into a proton.

Which type of particle has no mass and no charge?


Name 3 characteristics of gamma particles.

Weakly ionising

penetrate far into materials

No mass and no charge

What happens when alpha and beta particles are put through a magnetic/electric field?

Deflect in opposite directions.

Alpha particles have a much larger charge than beta particles. Why don't they deflect more?

Much greater mass.

Why doesn't gamma radiation get deflected by electric or magnetic charge?

They have no charge.

What is the definition of half-life?

Average time it takes for the number of nuclei in a radioactive isotope sample to halve.

What are alpha particles used for?

Smoke detectors?

Which kinds of radiation are suitable for medicine and why.

Beta and gammer

Radiation passes out of the body

What kind of radiation is used in radiotherapy?


Apart from radiotherapy, what are gamma rays used for?

Sterilisation of food and surgical instruments.

How does radiation damage cells?

They collide with molecules.

The collisions cause ionisation which damages or destroys molecules.

What changes the effects of radiation exposure?


Energy and penetration of radiation because some types of radiation is more hazardous.

What radiation types are most dangerous outside the body?



What radiation types are most dangerous inside the body?

Alpha because it works on a concentrated area.

How can you handle radioactive substances more safely? 6 things

Reduce time

Don't let it touch the skin

Hold at arms length

Keep pointing away from the body

Don't look directly at it

Store in a lead box