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56 Cards in this Set

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Along with contrast allows detail to be seen


Degree of blackening from black metallic silver deposition on film

Film density

Adjustable component at the monitor, represents how much light is being emitted from the monitor, window level, changes overall lightness and darkness of image


To much density is ___, to much information recorded, to much penetration, to bright or light


To little density is ___, to much beam attenuation, diagnostic info did not reach IR


Multiple variables influence __ thereby influencing image __

Exposure, density

Primary adjustor, exposure determines density, directly proportional, controls density,


As mAs goes __ exposure goes __ proportionally, so density goes __

Up, up, up

Digital is always a __ relationship


Film is linear only along the __ part of the D log E curve only

Straight line

mAs reciprocity

Exposure=intensity x time

Intensity of exposure


Length of exposure


Depends on exposure but independent of the components


Interchange __ and ___ as long as __ is the same, ___ will be the same

mA, time, mAs, density

Occurs at extremely short or long exposure, inadequately calibrated equipment

Reciprocity failure

The 30% guideline is for __ only


Why do you have to change mAs by at least 30% on film

Can only see a visible change after changing mAs by 30%

Why does the 30% guideline not apply to digital

The histogram will control small to fairly large density adjustments

If density needs adjustment on film what do you do

Double the mAs to make darker, cut mAs in half to make lighter, anything less image does not need repeating

With digital systems typically mAs adjustments will only need to be ___ to correct quantum mottle


On digital what will tell you if technique can be decreased next time around


If kVp goes up, scatter goes __, so density goes __

Up, up

If kVp goes up, penetrability goes __, so density goes __

Up, up

If kVp goes up,# of interactions at the target goes __, so __ xray photons are produced (quantity)

Up, more

Affects quantity and quality


Preferred method for density adjustments is through


Non linear relationship between a change in __ and __

kVp, density

Increase the kVp by 15% to double exposure to the IR, and cut mAs in half, will affect image contrast, influenced by tissue type, *more effectively use when a change in contrast is needed

15% rule

What kVp range does the 15% rule work best

60-100 kVp

With the same technique if a large focal spot is used and then a small focal spot what should not change


What side of the is beam intensity greater


This describes the change in exposure intensity when distance change

Inverse square law

change SID but keep same exposure what do you use

Direct square law

Going from 40" to 56" what would you do to mAs


From 72" to 56"


From 40" to 72"

Double then double again, should put exposure with in 50% range of pervious

This type of filtration reduces exposure by eliminating soft xrays


Type of filter that affects IR exposure and therefore density


As beam restriction increases (FOV gets smaller) IR exposure will __


Will reduce the number of photons, reduce scatter and patient dose


Affects beam attenuation, inverse relationship with density, non linear relationship with density

Tissue thickness, atomic #, tissue density (amount of atoms in area)

Radiopaque like Ba or I, positive or negative contrast


Radiolucent like air or gas, positive or negative contrast


__ has similar effective atomic # as fat and water


Larger tube angles create __ parts


What absorbs scatter


The characteristics of IRs such as phosphor sensitivity will influence photon energy absorption and therefore IR __

Exposure (and density)

With digital post processing has a greater influence on what you __


With film what indicates how much xray energy is needed to achieve an exposure for a given speed cassette

Speed numbers

Film density will also be affected by (this is most overlooked)

Processor chemicals

Developer concentration to high, film in developer to long, developer temp to high

Increased film density

Processor chemicals contaminated, and become less effective

Decreased density

With digital what indicates how much exposure the IR received


There is greater __ with digital


Enough __ is needed for the computers __ to adjust the information into the visible range

Exposure, histogram