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 Electromagnetic exchange particle Photon Strong nuclear force exchange particle Pions Gravity exchange particle Graviton Electromotive force Electrical energy per unit charge produced by the source. Internal resistance The opposition to the flow of charge through the source. Potential difference The work done (or energy transfer) per unit charge. Resistance The opposition to the flow of charge. Caused by collisions between the charge carriers. Ohm's law. The Pd across a metallic conductor is proportional to the current through it, provided that the physical condition does not change. Resistivity The measure of resistance per unit volume of a material. What is the critical temperature of a superconductor? The temperature at which below resistance is zero. What are superconductors used for? Creating high power magnetic fields, used for mri's and particle accelerators. What does the IV graph of a wire look like? Straight line through the origin. What does the IV graph of a filament lamp look like? Curved line, decreasing gradient through origin. What does the IV graph of a diode look like. Hardly any conduction in one direction. Steep increase after activation pd. What does the IV graph of a thermistor look like? Straight line through the origin. Shallower gradient at lower temperatures. What does the resistance temperature graph of a NTC thermistor look like? A curved line that goes from a negative gradient to a more neutral one. When is the strong nuclear force effective? Repulsive when less than 0.5 fm attractivee between 0.5 and 5fm no effect at lengths greater than that. Calculating uncertainty using range. Find the range and divide it by two, divide the half range by the mean, times by 100 if it asks for percentage uncertainty. Longitudinal wave properties. Direction of vibration of particles is parallel to the direction the wave travels. Transverse wave properties The direction of vibration is perpendicular to the direction of the wave travels. Which seismic waves are longitudinal or transverse. P waves longitudinal.S waves are tran s ver s e dSin(©)=n^. Equation for diffraction grating. d is the distance between slits. Calculated by 1/number of slits per metre.n is the number of orders. W=pi*d/s. Double slit fringe spacing. W is the fringe spacing.D is the slit screen distance.S is the split separation. What factors are required for two waves to be coherent? Same phase difference, and frequency. What does the stress strain graph look like. It looks like this. P is the limit of proportionality.E is the elastic limit.Y is the yield point UTS is the ultimate tensile stress.B is the breaking point. Elastic and inelastic collisions. Elastic has no loss of kinetic energy, momentum is also conserved.Inelastic collisions loss of kinetic energy, some is transferred to heat. Momentum is conserved. Define the term moment. The turning force around an object. Defined as the force * perpendicular distance from pivot. Modal dispersion. Where a pulse of light spreads out in a fibre optic cable due to the different distances travelled by the ray of light.This can be prevented by using a thinner optical fibre. Cladding is needed around the core because? Light from different fibres would cross over. First harmonic frequency equation. F=c/wavelength or F=c/2lFor the second harmonic f=c/lFor the third harmonic F=3c/2l What shows the particle nature of waves? The photoelectric effect. What shows the wave nature of particles? Particle diffraction. To find the wavelength of a particle use the de Broglie equation. Wavelength of a microwave? 3cm What is shown on an emission spectrum? Coloured lines on a black background. These lines refer to specific frequencies of photons which represent specific quanta of energy that cause the excitation of an atoms electrons. What does an absorption spectra show? Black lines on a rainbow background. This represents specific frequencies of photons which represents specific quanta of energy that the atoms electrons absorb to become excited. How does fluorescent tubes work? 1. Mercury in a tube with a high pd across it. The charge carrying electrons bump into the mercury's electrons exciting them.2. These electrons then deexcite producing ultraviolet photons. These are absorbed by the fluorescent coating of the tube causing the electrons to excite.3. These electrons deexcite in steps causing multiple frequency photons of visible light to be emitted by the tube. What factors show that something is a weak interaction? Quark flavour change.Leptons are involved. Neutrinos are involved. What is electron capture? When a proton absorbs electron, causing a neutrino and a neutron to be produced. What happens in annihilation? A particle and antiparticle collide, this produces two photons in opposite directions which conserves energy and momentum. What happens in pair production? A high energy photon, passing a nucleus, turns into an antiparticle and particle. These travel in opposite directions to conserve momentum.