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54 Cards in this Set
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Faraday's law of electromagnetic Induction

whenever there is a change in magnetic flux, an emf is induced and the magnitude of that emf is directly proporsional to the rate of change of the magnetics flux linkage


De Broglie Wavelength

It is the wavelength associated with a particle that is in motion


Newton's First Law of Motion

Newton’s first law of motion states that a body will continue in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless an external resultant force acts on it.


Newton's second law of motion

Newton’s second law states that the rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the resultant force acting on it and the change takes place in the direction of the force.


Newton's law of motion

Newton’s third law states that: If body A exerts a force on body B, then body B exerts a force of equal magnitude but in the opposite direction on body A.


Principal of conservation of Momentum

The principal of conservation of momentum states that the total momentum of a system of objects remains constant provided no resultant external force acts on the system


Principal of Conservation of Energy

The Principle of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed in any process


Simple Harmonic Motion

Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) is defined as the oscillatory motion of a particle whose acceleration a is always directed towards a fixed point and is directly proportional to its displacement x from that fixed point but in the opposite direction to the displacement.


Damping

Damping is the process whereby energy is taken from the oscillating system. Resulting in a reduction in amplitude of oscillation.


Diffraction

Diffraction refers to the bending or spreading out of waves when they travel through a small opening or when they pass round a small obstacle.


Principal of Superposition

The Principle Of Superposition states that when two waves of the same kind meet at a point in space, the resultant displacement at that point is the vector sum of the displacements that the two waves would separately produce at that point.


Inteference

Interference refers to the superposing of two or more coherent waves to produce regions of maxima and minima in space, according to the principle of superposition.


Newton’s Law Of Universal Gravitation

Newton’s Law Of Universal Gravitation states that every particle in the Universe attracts every other particle with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.


Gravitational potential energy, U

Gravitational potential energy, U of a point mass m, in a gravitational field, is the work done by an external force in bringing that point mass from infinity to that point.


Gravitational potential

Gravitational potential at a point in a gravitational field is the work done per unit mass, by an external force, in bringing the mass from infinity to that point.


Escape Speed

Escape speed is the minimum speed with which a mass should be projected from the Earth’s surface in order to escape Earth’s gravitation field.


Coulombs's Law

The coulomb’s law states that the electrostatic force between two point charges is proportional to the product of their charges and inversely inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.


Electric Field Strength

The Electric field strength at a point in an electric field is the electrostatic force per unit charge experienced by a small positive test charge placed at that point


Electric Pontential

Electric Potential at a point in an electric field is the work done per unit charge by an external agent in bringing a positive test charge from infinity to that particular point without acceleration.


Electric potential energy

Electric potential energy of a charge in an electric field is defined as the work done by an external force in bringing the charge from infinity to that point a distance r away.


Electronvolt

The electron volt is defined as energy that an electron (or proton) gains (or loses) when it is accelerated(or decelerated) through a potential difference of 1 volt.


Electric Current

Electric Current is the rate flow of charged particle


Potential Difference

The potential difference between two points in an electrical circuit is the electrical energy converted into other forms of energy per unit charge passing from one point to the other.


Ohm's Law

Ohm’s Law states that the current flowing across a component is directly proportional to the potential difference accross it provided that its physical conditions, such as temperature, remain constant.


Kirchhoff’s First Law

Kirchhoff’s First Law states that the total current entering a junction is equal to the total current leaving the junction. OR The algebraic sum of currents at a junction is zero.


Kirchhoff’s second law

Kirchhoff’s second law states that the net electromotive force around a closed circuit loop is equal to the sum of potential drops around the loop. OR The algebraic sum of the changes in potential encountered in a complete traversal of a closed circuit loop must be zero.


Magnetic flux density (B)

Magnetic flux density (B) is defined as the force acting per unit current per unit length on a wire placed at right angles to the magnetic field.


Tesla

1 Tesla is defined as the magnetic flux density of a uniform magnetic field when a wire of length 1m , carrying a current of 1A, placed perpendicular to the field, experiences a force of 1N in a direction at right angles to both the field and the current.


Magnetic flux

Magnetic flux through a plane surface is the product of the magnetic flux density normal to the surface BN and the area A of the surface.


Weber

The weber is defined as the magnetic flux through a surface if a magnetic field of flux density 1 T exists perpendicularly to an area of 1 m2.


Magnetic Flux Linkage

Magnetic Flux Linkage is defined as the product of the number of turns N of the coil and the magnetic flux linking each turn.


Faraday’s Law

Faraday’s Law states that the induced e.m.f. is directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage or rate of cutting of magnetic flux linkage.


Lenz’s Law

Lenz’s Law states that the induced e.m.f. will be directed such that the current which it causes to flow opposes the change that is producing it.


rootmeansquare

The rootmeansquare (r.m.s.) value of an alternating current is equivalent to the steady direct current that converts electrical energy to other forms of energy at the same average rate as the alternating current in a given resistance.


Rectification

Rectification is the process in which an alternating current is forced to only flow in one direction.


Photoelectric Effect

Photoelectric Effect is the emission of electrons from metal by electromagnetic radiation.


Work Function

The work function of a material is defined as the minimum amount of the work necessary to remove a free electron from the surface of the material.


Threshold frequency

Threshold frequency is the minimum frequency of an incident radiation required to just remove an electron from the surface of a metal.


Mass defect of a nucleus

The mass defect of a nucleus is defined as the difference between the mass of the separated nucleons and the combined mass of the nucleus.


Nuclear fission

Nuclear fission is the disintegration of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei of approximately equal masses.


Nuclear fusion

Nuclear fusion is the combining of the two light nuclei to produce a heavier nucleus.


Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay is the spontaneous disintegration of the nucleus of an atom which results in the emission of particles.


Background radiation

Background radiation refers to ionizing radiation emitted from a variety of natural and artificial radiation sources.


Activity

The activity of a radioactive substance is defined as the average number of atoms disintegrating per unit time.


Decay Constant

The decay constant of a nucleus is defined as its probability of decay per unit time.


Half Life

Halflife is defined as the time taken for half the original number of radioactive nuclei to decay.


Systematic errors

Systematic errors are errors of measurements in which the measured quantities are displaced from the true value by fixed magnitude and in the same direction.


Random errors

Random errors are errors of measurements in which the measured quantities differ from the mean value with different magnitudes and directions.


Accuracy

Accuracy is a measure of how close the results of an experiment agree with the true value.


Precision

Precision is a measure of how close the results of an experiment agree with each other.


internal energy

The internal energy is a function of state and the total microscopic kinetic and potential energies of the particles composing the system.


specific latent heat of fusion, Lf

The specific latent heat of fusion, Lf , is defined as the amount of heat required per unit mass to change a substance from the solid phase to the liquid phase without any change in temperature


specific latent heat of vaporization, Lv

The specific latent heat of vaporization, Lv, is defined as the amount of heat required per unit mass to change a substance from the liquid phase to the vapor phase without any change in temperature.


First law of thermodynamics

First law of thermodynamics state that internal energy is a function of state and the increase in internal energy is equal to the sum of the heat supplied to system and work done on system.
