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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Contrast elements, compounds and mixtures
element consists of only type of atom, compound is substance containing atoms of two or more different elements chemically bound together, mixtures are matter that can vary in composition
Define physical and chemical properties of matter
Chemical property: the ability or inability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more new substances.
Physical property: a characteristic of matter that you can observe or measure without changing the the identity of the matter
What are the three common phases in which matter can exist?
Solid, liquid and gas, depending on the temperature of the substance.
What are the basic characteristics of solids, liquids and gases, in terms of volume and shape?
Solids: have a definite shape and volume
Liquids: have definite volume but not definite shape.
Gases: has no definite volume or shape
Define chemical change and give an example.
Def: a change in matter in which the substances that make up the matter change into other substances with different chemical and physical properties - rusting, burning, cooking.
What are signs that a chemical change has occurred?
A change in odor or color, production of bubbles (gas), energy release (heat or light), a change that can be detected by your senses.
Define physical change and give an example.
Def: a change in the size, shape, form, or state of matter that does not change the matter's identity - ice melting, breaking something into smaller pieces, dissolving salt in water.
What is the law of conservation of mass?
This law states that the mass of the products must equal the mass of the reactants in any chemical reaction. i.e. "You have to end with the same amount you started with."
What are the three main classifications of elements on the periodic table?
Metals, nonmetals and metalloids.
What are some of the characteristics of metals? Give an example.
are generally shiny, easily pulled into wires (ductile) or hammered into shapes (malleable), are good conductors of heat and electricity - e.g. iron, copper, tin, aluminium, silver, gold
What are some of the characteristics of a nonmetal? Give an example.
are generally dull in luster, brittle (they break easily), and are poor conductors of heat and electricity - e.g. carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, iodine
What is a metalloid? Give an example.
have the physical and chemical properties of both metals and nonmetals - e.g. boron, silicon, arsenic
What is velocity?
the speed and direction of a moving object
What is motion?
the process of changing position
Define position, in regards to physics.
an object's distance and direction from a reference point
The description of an object's position depends on what?
It's reference point
State Newton's first law of motion
If the net force on an object is zero, the motion of the object will not change.
Describe an object's motion when the forces acting on it are balanced.
When the net force on an object is zero, there is no change in the object's motion - whether it is at rest or in motion
Describe an object's motion when the forces acting on it are unbalanced.
When there is a net force acting on an object at rest it begins to move, when a net force acts on an object that is already moving, then the speed, direction or both change
Define gravity.
an attractive force that exists between all objects that have mass.
What is the "Law of Universal Gravitation"?
all objects are attracted to each other by a gravitational force
What determines the strength of gravitational force?
the mass of the objects and the distance between them
Distinguish between mass and weight.
Mass the amount of matter an object contains.
Weight is the gravitational force exerted on the object.
In what direction are all objects that have mass on and around the earth pulled?
Toward the center of the earth.
Define vibration.
a rapid, back and forth motion that can occur in solids, liquids, and gases
Define longitudinal wave.
a wave that makes the particles in the material that carries the wave move back and forth along the direction the wave travels
How do sound waves move through matter?
Through a series of compressions and rarefactions.
Define compression, in regard to waves.
a region of a longitudinal wave where the particles in the medium are closest together
Define rarefaction, in regard to waves.
a region of a longitudinal wave where the particles are the farthest apart
What are three types of mechanical waves?
sound, water, seismic
What two factors affect the speed of sound waves?
the density and the stiffness of the material
In which of the following does sound travel the fastest, the slowest? air, glass, seawater
fastest in glass
slowest in air
Define transmission in regard to light waves.
the passage of light through an object
Define reflection in regard to waves.
the bouncing of a wave off a surface
Define absorption in regard to waves.
the transfer of energy by a wave to the medium through which it travels
Define refraction in regard to waves.
the change in direction of a wave that occurs as the wave changes speed when moving from one medium to another
If you were to look at red and green crayons with a red light, what colors would they be? Explain.
The red crayons would be red because it reflects the red light, the green crayons would be black because there is no green light to reflect back to your eye
Which of the colors of white light does a black object reflect?
none of them
Define temperature.
the average kinetic energy of the particles that make up a material
Define thermal energy.
the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the particles that make up a material
Define heat
the movement of thermal energy from a warmer object to a cooler one
At what point does the transfer of thermal energy (heating) between two objects stop?
When they become the same temperature.
State the law of conservation of energy.
energy can be transformed from one form into another or transferred from one region to another, but energy cannot be created or destroyed
What are the energy transfers that occur when you make popcorn in a microwave oven?
Electrical to radiant (inside the microwave) and radiant to thermal (inside the popcorn kernals)
What are the energy transfers involved in an electric generator?
it use a magnetic field to transform mechanical energy to electric energy