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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What holds a compound together?
chemical bonds
How can the structure of chemical compounds be shown?
various models ( think the ball and stick model )
What determines the properties of a compound?
the chemical structure
What is a chemical bond?
the attractive force that holds atoms or ions together
What is a chemical structure?
the arrangement of atoms in a substance
What is bond length?
the distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms
What is bond angle?
the angle between two bonds of the same atom
Why do atoms form bonds?
so that each atom is stable
How do ionic bonds form?
from attractions from oppositely charged ions
What do atoms joined by covalent bonds share?
What gives metals their distinctive properties?
their atoms and electrons can move freely
How are polyatomic ions similar to other ions?
they both act as a single unit in a compound
What is an ionic bond?
the attractive force between oppositely charged ions; electrons can be transferred from them
What is a covalent bond?
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
What is a metallic bond?
formed between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them
What is a polyatomic ion?
an ion made of two or more atoms
When do chemical reactions take place?
when substances go though chemical changes to form new substances
What is the role of energy in chemical reactions?
combines substances
What is a reactant?
a substance/molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
What is a product?
a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
What is chemical energy?
the energy released when a chemical reaction takes place
What is an exothermic reaction?
a chemical reaction where energy is released
What is an endothermic reaction?
a reaction that requires energy input
What is a chemical equation?
uses symbols to represent a chemical reaction - like a sentence
What can a balanced chemical equation tell you?
the mole ratio
What is a mole ratio?
proportion of reactants and products
In which kinds of chemical reactions do the numbers of electrons in atoms change?
free-radical and redox reactions
What is a synthesis reaction?
What is a decomposition reaction?
What is a combustion reaction?
oxygen goes to carbon dioxide and water
What is a single-displacement reaction?
What is a double-displacement reaction?
What is a free radical?
an atom/group of atoms that has one unpaired electron
What is a redox reaction?
a reaction where one substance loses electrons and anther gains electrons
What kinds of things speed up a reaction?
temperature, surface area, concentration, pressure, and size of molecules
What does a catalyst do?
speeds up or slows down a reaction
What happens when a reaction goes backward as well as forward?
the result gives you and equilibrium system
What is an enzyme?
a molecule that is either RNA or protein that acts as a catalyst in reactions
What is a substrate?
the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
What is an inhibitor?
basically catalysts but only can slow down a reaction
What is an equilibrium?
a balance that is reached by two opposing processes
What is a chemical equilibrium?
a state where a reversible chemical reaction is happening in both directions equally
What is Le Chatelier's principle?
the general rule that describes how equilibrium systems respond to change
What is a structural formula?
shows the structures of compounds
What is a space-filling model?
shows the space that two atoms take up/fill
What is significant about a hydrogen bond?
the attractions between the molecules are not as strong as the attractions between the atoms
What is a non polar covalent bond?
when electrons are shared equally
What is a polar covalent bond?
when electrons are not shared equally
What does organic mean?
describes a type of compound that contains carbon
What are alkanes?
hydrocarbons that have only single covalent bonds
In order to break bonds, what must be added? What about to form bonds?
add energy to break, release it to form
What is a coefficient?
the little number at the bottom of an element in a chemical formula
What is a polymer?
a chain of small molecules joined together to make bigger ones
What is used to describe any reaction where an atom loses electrons?