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52 Cards in this Set

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Define pathophysiology

The physiology of altered health

What is epidemiology

The study of factors that affect the health of populations

Define aetiology

The cause of disease. Can be biological, physical, chemical, genetic or nutritional excesses/deficits

What is congenital aetiology?

Defects present at birth

Define pathogenesis

Sequence of pathological events that take place from the time of initial contact with aetiological agent (cause) until the ultimate expression of disease

What is the difference between acute, chronic and subacute diseases?

Acute are short-term, chronic are long term and subacute is in-betweem.




Acute DOES NOT necessarily mean that it is more severe.

Define prognosis

The possible outcome and recovery prospects from an ailment

What are some of the different factors considered in epidemiology?

- age


- race


- dietary habits


- lifestyle


- geographic location

What is the difference between incidence and prevalence?

Incidence is the number of NEW cases arising in a population.




Prevalence is the number of TOTAL cases at a given point.

What is the difference between morbidity and mortality?

Morbidity describes the effect of an illness on a persons life.




Mortality provides statistical information about trends in population health. (Life expectancy is a measure of mortality)

What is HALE?

Health adjusted life expectancy - estimation of number of years spent free of disease

What are the different categories of risk factors to ill health?

- Behavioral (smoking, sedentary lifestyle, etc)


- Biomedical (Obesity, High blood pressure, etc)


- Environmental


- Genetic (haemophilia, down syndrome, diabetes)


- Demographic (age, sex, population groups)

What are the most common forms of cancer

- Prostate


- Bowel


- Breast


- Melanoma


- Lung

What are the 2 types of acute muscle injuries?

- Contusions / Hematoma


- Strains/tears

What are some the chronic/overuse pathologies of muscle?

- Focal thickening / fibrosis


- Compartment Syndrome


- DOMS


- Cramps

What is the usual cause of a muscle contusion?

A sudden, heavy compressive force




(e.g. a direct physical blow to the muscle)

Define haematoma

Large area of local bleeding (hemorrhage)

What causes pain in a haematoma? What makes this pain worse?

Excess blood exerting pressure on nerve endings.




Made worse by movement or direct pressure to the area

What is the name of the complication which occurs when haematoma calcifies?

Myositis Ossificans

What is Myositis Ossificans? What occurs at in terms of pathophysiology?

A complication causing haematoma calcification.




This occurs as a result of osteoblasts replacing fibroplasts during the healing process, hence the calcified tissue.





What are some signs of Myositis Ossificans?

- increase in morning pain + pain with activity


- night pain


- palpable lump


- haematoma healing ceases and subsequently deteriorates

What are some risk factors of Myositis Ossificans?

- Increased severity of haematoma (more likely with more severe haematoma)


- Rebleed (e.g. receiving another physical blow to the site during the healing process)


- Inappropriate treatment (heat/massage)

What are 2 risk factors specific to haematoma of the thigh?

- Presence of knee effusion (excess fluid/swelling around the knee joint)


- Prone knee flexion less than 45 degs

Define muscle strain / tear

A muscle is strained or torn when some or all the fibres fail to cope with the demands placed upon them.

What usually causes muscle strain / tear?

- Excessive tensile forces (overstretch)




However, can also occur during strong contraction

What type of muscles are strains/tears most common in?

Superficial 2 joint muscles. (e.g. hamstrings/RF)

What phase of running do muscle strains/tears often occur in?

Deceleration

What is the difference between intramuscular and intermuscular haematoma?

Intramuscular is when the haeamatoma is completely contained within intact muscle fascia.




Intermuscular occurs when the surrounding muscle fascia is torn and the haemorrhage spreads to interstitial spaces.

Describe a mild (1st degree) muscle strain and associated symptoms (4)

- few tear of fibres


- minor swelling


- minor discomfort


- minimal or no loss of strength


- minimal or no restriction of movement

Describe a moderate (2nd degree) muscle strain and associated symptoms (4)

- significant number of fibres torn


- significant swelling


- significant discomfort


- pain on contraction


- loss of strength


- restriction to movement

Describe a severe (3rd degree) muscle strain and associated symptoms

- complete tear of muscle (all fibres torn)


- complete loss of muscle function

What is the fundamental difference in healing processes between muscle and bone?

Muscle is a repair process in contrast to bone which is a regeneration process.




This means that muscle heals with a scar which replaces the original tissue

What are the 3 phases of muscle repair?

1. Inflammation / Destruction phase


(damaged tissue is destroyed and removed)




2. Proliferation / Repair phase


(scar begins to form)




3. Maturation / Remodelling phase


(scar tissue retracts andgradually replaced by mature myofibres)

Disorder where repetitive microtrauma damages muscle fibres

Focal thickening / Fibrosis

What is compartment syndrome?

A muscle overuse disorder when local swelling causes pressure within the muscle compartment.

How is compartment syndrome diagnosed?

Testing is done through 'compartment pressure tests' which are not conducted by physiotherapists.




Signs of CS is pain commencing during activity and ceasing at rest. Physio can only refer for further testing.

How long after exercise does DOMS usually develop?

24-48 hours after

What is the aetiology for DOMS?

The aetiology is not clear, but there are theories that the following may cause DOMS:




- lactic acid


- muscle spasm


- torn tissue


- connective tissue


- enzyme efflux


- tissue fluid

What type of muscle activity generally results in more severe DOMS?

Eccentric activity

What is a cramp?

A painful, involuntary muscle contraction

What are some theories about the cause of cramp?

- Neural excitability


- Dehydration


- Low potassium/sodium


- inadequate carb intake


- excessively tight muscles

What is tendinopathy?

A generic term used to describe several pathologies of the tendon

Define tendinosis

A disorder of the tendon resulting in collagen degeneration (disorder & separation)

What are some clinical signs of tendinosis

- pain sometime after exercise (e.g. next day)


- pain at rest, which decreases with use then worsens in cool down


- local tenderness or thickening


- swelling


- crepitus (creaking or crackling noise / feel)

Define tendinitis

Inflammation of the tendon.




However this has rarely been proven to occur at a histological level and therefore Tendinosis is a more correct term to use

What is paratenonitis?

Inflammation of the paratenon (outer layer of tendon

Where do tendon tears usually occur?

At the point of least blood supply

What are signs of a tendon tear?

- Sudden onset of pain (e.g. felt like they were shot)


- localised tenderness

What are the 3 phases of tendon healing?

1. Inflammation


2. Proliferation


3. Maturation

What are the 3 grade of ligament sprain?


What are the 3 phases of ligament healing?

1. Inflammation


2. Proliferation


3. Maturation

Does return of joint function mean ligament is healed?

No - other structures can compensate for the missing function.