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216 Cards in this Set

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This camera setting allows you to specify the f-stop, while the camera autoselects the shutter speed
Aperture priority
This camera feature selects the correct focus distance for you, usually based on contrast of image or infrared sensor
Auto Focus
Light-measuring device that calculates exposure based on brightness of entire image
Averaging meter
The Tonal Level of an image where blacks begin to provide important image information, usually measured by using a histogram
black point
To soften an image or part of an image by throwing it out of focus, or by camera motion
Taking a series of photographs of the same subject at different settings to help ensure that one setting will be the correct one
This darkroom technique involves exposing part of a print for a longer period, making it darker than it would be with a straight exposure
Movement of the camera, aggravated by slower shutter speeds, causing image blur
Camera shake
A light measuring device that emphasizes the area in the middle of the frame when calculating the correct exposure for an image
Center weighted meter
an image defect, often seen as green or purple fringing around the edges of an object, caused by a lens failing to focus on all colors of a light source at the same pt
Chromatic aberration
Process of changing the amounts of color in an image to produce desired effect
Color correction
Reducing the size of a file by encoding using fewer bits of info to represent the original
Range between lightest and darkest tones in an image
To trim an image or page by adjusting its boundaries
Distance in front of and behind the subject which appears to be in focus
Depth of field
Range that the image capturing surface could be moved while maintaining acceptable focus
Depth of focus
To reduce purity or vividness of a color
Soft, low-contrast lighting
Diffuse lighting
Darkroom term for blocking part of an image as it is exposed, lightening its tones.
Light-sensitive coating on a piece of film, paper, or printing plate.
Amount of light allowed to reach the film or sensor, determined by intensity of the light, amount admitted by the lens, and length of time determined by shutter speed
Automatic setting in automatic camera that provides the optimum combo of shutter speed and f-stop at a given level of illumination.
Exposure program
In photography, lighting used to illuminate shadows
Fill lighting
Distance between the film and the optical center of the lens when the lens is focused on infinity,
Focal length
Camera feature that lets you freeze the auto focus of the lens when the subject you want to capture is in sharp focus, then reframe the photograph without changing focus.
Focus lock
The f-stop is the ratio of what two parts of the camera?
1. effective focal length of the lens
2. diameter of the entrance pupil
Term used to describe the brightest parts of an image containing detail
Point of focus where everything from half that distance to infinity appears to be acceptably sharp.
hyperfocal distance
Light falling on a surface
incident light
Technique used to create new pixels required whenever you resize or change the resolution of an image, based on values of surrounding pixels
Common image file format that supports 24-bit color and reduces file sizes by selectively discarding image data
Lens opening or iris that admits light to the film or sensor
lens aperture
A lens that provides continuous focusing, from infinity to extreme close ups, often to a reproduction ratio of 1:2 or 1:1 (half life size or life size)
macro lens
Exposure metering system using a multi-segment sensor and programming so various parts of a scene can be emphasized when calculating the correct exposure
matrix metering system
Representation of an image in which the tones are reversed: blacks as white, and vice versa.
Condition in which too much light reaches the film or sensor, producing a dense negative or a very bright/light print, slide, or digital image
over exposure
Moving the camera so that the image of a moving object remains in the same relative position in the viewfinder as you take a picture
Smallest element of a screen display that can be assigned a color
Image file format including all the unprocessed info captured by the camera
Number of pixels per inch, used to determine the size of the image when printed
Device that captures an image of a piece of artwork and converts it to a digitized image or bitmap that the comp can handle
Increasing the apparent sharpness of an image by boosting the contrast between adjacent pixels that form an edge
Exposure mode in which you set the shutter speed, while the camera automatically selects the appropriate f-stop
Shutter priority
Type of camera that allows you to see through the camera's lens as you look in the camera's viewfinder
single lens reflex (SLR)
Lens or lens setting that magnifies an image
Condition in which too little light reaches the film or sensor, producing a thin negative, a dark slide, a muddy-looking print, or dark digital image
under exposure
Process for increasing the contrast between adjacent pixels in an image, increasing sharpness, especially around edges
unsharp masking
to enlarge or reduce the size of an image on your monitor/enlarge or reduce size of image using magnification settings of a lens
What are the first 9 full stops starting with f/1.4?
f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22
What are the first 7 half stops, starting with f/4
f/4, f/4.8, f/5.6, f/6.7, f/8, f/9.5, f/11
What are the first x 1/3-stops, starting with f/4?
f/4, f/4.5, f/5, f/5.6, f/6.3, f/7.1, f/8, f/9, f/10, f/11
Consider a proper exposure using at f/11 @ 60. Changing the f-stop to f8 would require what shutter speed for an equivalent exposure?
f/8 @ 125
To decrease depth of field, do this to the aperture. What f-stop?
Lower f-stop leads to low depth of field, e.g., f/2.8
To increase depth of field, do this to the aperture. What f-stop?
Higher f-stop leads to higher depth of field, e.g., f/11
What are the whole shutter speeds from whole shutter speeds from 1000 to 1 second
1000, 500, 250, 125, 60, 30, 15, 8, 4, 2, 1, 1, 2, B
Describe the differences between high and low ISO
* High ISO leads to grainy photos, but sensitive to light
* Low ISO leads to less grainy photos, with less sensitivity to light
What is the photography term for distracting background objects?
Distracting objects in background
the "Magic Hour"
1/2-1 hour after sunrise
1/2-1 hour before sunset

Magic Hour light color is yellow orange, soft diffused
What is f-stop
f-stop = focal length / aperture


f14 = 200mm (focal length) / 50 mm-wide opening aperture

F-stop is the focal length divided by the diameter of the lens. For example, a 200mm f/4 lens will be 50mm wide. Get out your ruler and measure it. 200mm/50mm = f/4. That is why f-stop is typically written as F/4, meaning "focal-length over 4" or "focal-length divided by four".
"sectional" shooting
"fractional" shooting - taking a photo of a small section of a larger image
photo with a horizon that is not horizontal
"specular highlights"
tiny blown-out areas in a photograph - like on an earring
Depth of Field is influenced by
1. aperture
2. focal length
3. distance from the subject
Distance from the subject: the closer you are to a subject,
the shallower the depth of field
define focal length:
the distance from the film in the camera to the lens when the camera is focused at infinity.

The focal length of the lens on most adjustable cameras is marked in millimeters on the lens mount. By adjusting the focal length on your camera, you affect the zoom. The larger the focal length, the higher the amount of zoom.
Shutter speed controls:

Aperture controls:
shutter speed controls movement

aperture controls how much of the scene from front to back will be in sharp focus. This area of sharpness is the Depth of Field

Much of the use of aperture and shutter speed is juggling one with the other.If you want a lot of depth of field, you will have to select a small aperture. To counter this, you will have to select a shutter speed that will give you:
1. correct exposure
2. be suffiently fast enough to freeze movement within the scene
3. be fast enough to prevent camera shake

To capture fast movement, you will have to select a reasonably fast shutter speed. To counter this you will have to select an aperture which will:

1. give you the correct exposure
2. be small enough to provide sufficient depth of field
Fill Flash - What are the 5 steps?
1. Turn on Flash unit to ETTL
2. Center focus on the subject
3. Press 1/2 way down
4. * Press exposure lock - this flashes the preflash
5. Then press all the way down
Stop down
to make the aperture number smaller (this increases depth of field)
What is E-TTL Flash Mode?
An advanced flash control system. The preflash result and distance information from the EF type lens controls the amount of flash volume. Once the button is pressed half way down, the FE lock (Flash Exposure Lock) button is pressed (*asterisk), is then pressed and the button pressed down completely. Also, it is recommended that yo wait for the red Ready Light to remain on to enture best ensure.
Compressed Values
even light throughout a photo - not a broad range of tonal values; but enough contrasts that the subject stands out from the background.
Fill flash
often used to brighten up the subject; is used even in the daytime to help even out the light
effective distance of flash
4 - 12 feet
International Standards Organization; sensitivity of film (also ASA - American Standards Assn)

less sensitive - slow (100 ISO ------------ more sensitive - fast (1600 ISO)

higher ISO: more grain
TV mode
Time Value (shutter prioriity) - controls movement (both camera and subject) Choose shutter speed at the lens length
considered the sharpest your camera can get; optimal for your camera
AV mode
Aperture Value - set the aperture to specific value (EX: F8) and let the shutterspeed fall where it will
Manual Mode - its use in the studio to achieve proper white balance
when shooting in the studio, use Manual mode and meter on gray card that is in front of the object
Portrait Mode
Camera decides whether to use Flash; decides the depth of field (will be shallow) typically f 5.6
Landscape Mode
Lots of depth of field
Macro mode
for close-ups; shallow depth of field
automatic through the lens metering (Canon strobe and Canon camera: totally dedicated)
How does aperture effect flash?
Shoot in AV at widest aperture value, the flash will travel its farthest; f11, f16, flash will not travel far.
How do you shoot in Manual Mode?
In Manual mode, the dial changes the TV (Time Value); then press the AV (Aperture Value) button to line up in the middle of the meter.
Cloudy Setting
Refers to color temperature: makes it a warmer temperature
daylight: kelvin?
In-studio shooting of an object
Shoot with dof f22-f32 or more - everything will be in focus;

ISO 100;

set WB at tungsten (WV > dial to lightbulb > set);

leave lots of space around the object and then crop in photoshop;

shoot at same height or below the object for more drama;

use Lens Hood (TV, movie, video camera have large lens hoods);

be sure the background is far from the object;

shoot with black or white background - the settings remain the same
lens speed
the smallest f-stop or "maximum aperture" of a lens.
"fast" lens
a lens with a large aperture permitting fast shutter speeds. EX: a lens with a large maximum aperture of f2, is called a "fast" lens because the large aperture allows you to use high (fast) shutter speeds and still receive sufficient exposure. This type of lens is ideal to use when shooting moving subjects in low light conditions. Fast lenses are big, heavy and expensive.
Unlike the aperture, which is always in an open position, the shutter is always
Exposure value
When you combine (juggle) a shutter speed and an aperture, you get an exposure value.
the effect you get when you don't photograph a rectangle or square straight on
how does focal length affect the depth of field?
The longer the focal length, the smaller the depth of field ??
close down
The aperture is always be held open at its maximum, and does not actually "close down" until the moment of exposure. The main reason for this is to produce the brightest image possible onto the focusing screen.
Four categories of shutter speeds
1. Fast shutter speeds:
8000 th - 250 th

2. Picnic speeds:
125 th - 60 th

3. Slow shutter speeds:
30 th - 8th

4. Bulb
Fast Shutter Speeds
Fast shutter speeds freeze the action resulting in a sharper image. The brighter the light, the faster the shutter speed you can attain. Use fast speeds for sporting events, nature & wildlife scenes and moving objects. Start out with the FASTEST speed your camera offers. Then, if not bright enough, adjust to the next lowest speeds until achieving proper exposure.

8000 th
4000 th
2000 th
1000 th
500 th
250 th (marginal)
Picnic Speeds
Average speeds for moderate activity like children at play and people walking. Use in bright sunlight and open shade. 60th - 125th.

If shutter speed drops below 30th of a second, use a tripod and cable release for sharp images.
Slow shutter speeds
Slow shutter speeds create real time renditions and are used in:
1. LOW LIGHT scenes without a flash (window light, room light, sunset afterglow, subtle moody light).
2. To create an ILLUSION OF SPEED using "hand held" panning techniques.
3. To cause an INTENTIONAL BLUR as an enhancement. A waterfall, for example, takes on a smooth milky white look.
Aperture stays open as long as the button is pressed.
Settings for using Bulb for abstracts in the dark
Use Bulb/f11 at ISO 100. Move the camera to create the desired design (painting with light). Best to keep exposure time under 4 seconds. Red, green and blue neon lights work very well ... avoid white light. Exposure time should not exceed 30 seconds.
Exposure compensation
In P mode, TV mode or AV mode, EC is used to lighten or darken the photo.
the illusion of speed can be created
using slow speeds - this can create a dynamic image - panning with slow speeds. In addition, using slow shutter speeds allows you to make things happen that you can't see happening with your eye.
"rim light"
apertures, f-stops & lens speeds
All the same thing: all of these terms describe the lens opening created by the aperture blades of the lens. The size of the lens opening can be adjusted to accommodate lighting conditoins and to create specific results.
f-stop little numbers
Little numbers create little depth of field: f2.8, f3.4, f5.0, f5.6 (portraits) - Open f-stops allow more light to pass to the film in low light situations (early dawn, evening and in average room light.) Use f-stops from f2.8-f5.6 (little numbers) to create a shallow depth of field (zone of sharpness). Focusing on a subject relatively close to the camera (within 8 feet) results in a diffused background which INCREASES THE VISUAL IMPACT of the subject.
f-stop big numbers
Big numbers create big depth of field: f8.0, f11, f16, f22. F-stops ranging from f8.0 to f22 result in a bigger depth of field which clarifies background information. Used for environmental portraits, documentary photography, scenics and lanscapes
Field of view (FOV) is determined by
the angle of view from the lens out to the scene. It can be measured horizontally and vertically
The focal length is the distance between
the optical center of the lens and the focal point which is located on the sensor surface if the image is "in focus."
How does focal length affect the size of the subject on the sensor?
The longer the focal length, the larger the size of subject on the sensor.
In 35mm photography, the "normal" lens has a focal length of
50mm. Such a lens works without reduction or magnification and creates images the way we see the scene with our naked eyes.

50mm approximates how the human eye sees. In other words, our eyes have a focal length of about 50mm.
Wide angle lenses have a _____ focal length
short. They can capture more of a scene because they have a wider horizontal and vertical FOV and picture angle.
Tele lenses have a _____ focal length
long. They have a narrower FOV and picture angle, creating a magnification effect.
The picture angle
is the field of view as measured along the diagonal.
Focal length ranges for wide angle, normal and telephone lenses
extreme wide angle: less than 21mm
wide angle: 21mm to 35mm
normal: 35mm to 70mm
medium telephoto: 70mm to 135mm
telephoto: 135mm to 300+mm
Telephoto lenses are more susceptible to
camera shake since small hand movements become magnified within the image, similar to the shakiness experience while trying to look through binoculars with a large zoom.
A common rule of thumb for estimating how fast the exposure needs to be for a given focal length is the
one over focal length rule. This states that for a 35 mm camera, the exposure time needs to be at least as fast as one over the focal length in seconds. In other words, when using a 200 mm focal length on a 35 mm camera, the exposure time needs to be at least 1/200 seconds-- otherwise blurring may be hard to avoid. Keep in mind that this rule is just for rough guidance; some may be able to hand hold a shot for much longer or shorter times than this rule estimates.
A zoom lens is one where the photographer can vary the _____ within a pre-defined range.
focal length
a "prime" lens has what type of focal length
"fixed" focal length
The advantages of a prime lens are:
The primary advantages of prime lenses are in cost, weight and speed. An inexpensive prime lens can generally provide as good (or better) image quality as a high-end zoom lens. Additionally, if only a small fraction of the focal length range is necessary for a zoom lens, then a prime lens with a similar focal length will be significantly smaller and lighter. Finally, the best prime lenses almost always offer better light-gathering ability (larger maximum aperture) than the fastest zoom lenses-- often critical for low-light sports/theater photography, and when a shallow depth of field is necessary.
The aperture range of a lens refers to
the amount that the lens can open up or close down to let in more or less light, respectively.
What is a "fast" lens?
Lenses with larger apertures are also described as being "faster," because for a given ISO speed, the shutter speed can be made faster for the same exposure. Additionally, a smaller aperture means that objects can be in focus over a wider range of distance, a concept also termed the depth of field.
Lenses with a greater range of aperture settings provide
greater artistic flexibility, in terms of both exposure options and depth of field.
A lens is referred to by its
maximum aperture. The maximum aperture is perhaps the most important lens aperture specification and is often listed on the box along with focal length(s).

An f-number of X may also be displayed as 1:X (instead of f/X).
Portrait and indoor sports/theater photography often requires lenses with what size of apertures?
very large maximum apertures, in order to be capable of faster shutter speeds or narrower depth of fields, respectively. The narrow depth of field in a portrait helps isolate the subject from their background. For digital SLR cameras,
Lenses with larger maximum...
Lenses with larger maximum apertures are typically much heavier, larger and more expensive.
The two main optical parameters of a photographic lens are
the focal length and the maximum aperture. The focal length determines the angle of view, and the size of the image relative to that of the object; the maximum aperture limits the brightness of the image and the fastest shutter speed usable.
Focal lengths are usually specifed in what unit of measure?
Focal lengths are usually specifed in millimetres (mm)
The macro lens has a magnification of
1:1. Macro lenses are designed for good performance at close distances, e.g., for images of the same size as the object.
What is 1:1 magnification?
Suppose a photographer wants to take a macro photograph of a coin on film. With the lens set for a magnification of 1:1, s/he moves the camera to and fro until the coin is in focus, then takes the picture. After having the photo printed, the photographer can place the coin on the print, and the coin will be exactly the same size as the picture of the coin on the negative or slide.
What is focal length?
the distance from the lens to the film (or the digital camera sensor), when focused on a subject at infinity. In other words, focal length equals image distance for a far subject. To focus on something closer than infinity, the lens is moved farther away from the film. This is why most lenses get longer when you turn the focusing ring. The focal length of a lens establishes the field of view of the camera. The shorter the focal length is, the larger the field of view. The magnification factor of the picture of an object and the object's actual size can be found by dividing the focal length of the camera lens used by the focal length of a standard lens.

There are three general types of lenses for a camera: normal or standard, wide angle, and telephoto. The focal length of a normal lens for a 35 mm SLR camera is approximately 50 mm. A standard or normal lens produces a picture with a perspective similar to the human eye. The focal length of a wide angle lens is any measurement less than 50 mm, but is typically 28 mm. A wide angle lens makes things appear smaller and distorts the view if the object is too close to the camera. The focal length of a telephoto lens ranges from 60 to 1000 mm. A telephoto lens magnifies the subject while at the same time narrowing the field of vision. These lenses create an image that looks flatter than that produced by a standard lens. An interactive demo of focal length can be found at http://www.usa.canon.com/html/eflenses/lens101/focallength/index.html
50mm translates roughly to how many inches?
The "standard" lens supplied with most SLRs is 50mm, roughly 2 inches.
Lenses that have shorter focal lengths than that of a standard lens have a _____ angle of view.
Lenses with longer focal lengths take in a ______ angle of view.
The lens extends as the focal length is ________
...increased (EX: from 70mm to 210mm)
White Balance: he reason we adjust white balance....
is to get the colors in your images as accurate as possible. The reason for this is that images with different sources of light have a different ‘color’ (or temperature) to them. Fluorescent lighting adds a bluish cast to photos whereas tungsten (incandescent/bulbs) lights add a yellowish tinge to photos. We don’t generally notice this difference in temperature because our eyes adjust automatically for it. So unless the temperature of the light is very extreme a white sheet of paper will generally look white to us. However a digital camera doesn’t have the smarts to make these adjustments automatically and sometimes will need us to tell it how to treat different light. So for cooler (blue or green) light you’ll tell the camera to warm things up and in warm light you’ll tell it to cool down.
Preset White Balance Settings: AUTO
this is where the camera makes a best guess on a shot by shot basis. You’ll find it works in many situations but it’s worth venturing out of it for trickier lighting.
Preset White Balance Settings: TUNGSTEN
this is where the camera makes a best guess on a shot by shot basis. You’ll find it works in many situations but it’s worth venturing out of it for trickier lighting.
Preset White Balance Settings: FLUORESCENT
this compensates for the ‘cool’ light of fluorescent light and will warm up your shots.
Preset White Balance Settings: DAYLIGHT/SUNNY
not all cameras have this setting because it sets things as fairly ‘normal’ white balance settings.
Preset White Balance Settings: CLOUDY
this setting generally warms things up a touch more than ‘daylight’ mode.
Preset White Balance Settings: FLASH
the flash of a camera can be quite a cool light so in Flash WB mode you’ll find it warms up your shots a touch.
Preset White Balance Settings: SHADE
the light in shade is generally cooler (bluer) than shooting in direct sunlight so this mode will warm things up a little.
What are you doing when you manually set the white balance?
In essence what you do is to tell your camera what white looks like in a shot so that it has something as a reference point for deciding how other colors should look. You can do this by buying yourself a white (or grey) card which is specifically designed for this task - or you can find some other appropriately colored object around you to do the job.
3 different techniques for getting a shallow depth of field (ex: shooting a portrait with background blurry). This is a great way to highlight your main subject and get rid of any distractions in the background.
1. position the subject you’re wanting to photograph as far away from any objects behind them as possible; 2. Use portrait mode: Portrait mode chooses a large aperture (a small ‘f’ number) which will make the depth of field (the amount of your shot in focus) smaller. 3. Select Aperture Priority Mode: choose a large Aperture - (the smaller the number the larger the aperture). Try taking a few shots at different apertures and see how it affects the background of your shots - this is the best way to learn how to get more creative control in your shots.
In portrait photography, what does ‘Work it Baby! mean?
As a photographer you should keep on the move around your subject, finding new angles, shooting from different distances, placing them in different parts of your frame and taking shots both incorporating their environment (wide angle) and close up and more intimate shots.

Instead of just expecting your subject to bring variety to the shots you take, it is you as the photographer that needs to be working hard to bring life to the photo.

The great thing about this approach is that as your subject sees you ‘working it’ that they often catch the vibe and it can bring a real energy to the shot from their perspective too.
Posing Tip for Portraits - Which Way Should Your Subject Lean?
When taking an upper body portrait a simple way to make your subject more engaging and friendly is to have them lean slightly in towards your camera. Another way to give the impression of your subject leaning in is to photograph them from slightly above.
Posing Tips for Portraits - Shoulders
When taking head shot and upper body portraits of people, one simple posing tip is to angle the shoulders of your subject rather than to have them even or squared in your shot. While the shoulders might not seem like an important aspect of a portrait they can actually set the tone for an image as they’re the widest part of your subject and they are visually what the main point of focus for your image (the head) is sitting upon.

Generally speaking, angling the shoulders slightly gives your shot balance and helps lead your viewer’s eye into the shot towards your main focal point. It also stops your subject from seeming out of proportion as it lessens the width of the shoulders slightly.

Getting this effect might mean actually getting your subject to lean in one direction or another or it could simply mean getting them to turn there body a little so you’re not photographing them directly front on. Another technique can be to frame your subject slightly off center so that one shoulder is actually out of the frame.
What are "environmental portraits"?
‘on location’ or ‘environmental’ portraits are portraits taken of people in a situation that they live in (work, rest or play) and/or a place that says something about who they are.
Four qualities of "environmental portraits"
* they give context to the subject you’re photographing
* they give points of interest to shots (something you need to watch as you don’t want to distract from your subject too much)
* they help your subject relax
* they often give the viewer of your shots real insight into the personality and lifestyle of your subject
A large aperture ....
A large aperture allows a lot more light to fall onto the sensor, and when this happens you have the freedom of using a faster shutter speed. This is especially handy in situations of low light and fast movement, such as indoor sports or a water fall at the end of the day. That’s why larger apertures and fast action shots indoors need to go hand in hand. By widening your aperture you have a better chance of the movement being ‘frozen’ in time and the camera won’t have time to think about camera shake. A large aperture can also give you a crisp depth of field. Your subject can be sharply in focus while the background is blurry ... thus bringing more attention to the subject. A shallow/small depth of field can throw everything but the subject out of focus. This lifts a photo to a new level and adds a 3 dimensional feel to your shots.
Discuss the focal length of a normal lens
angle of view of the diagonal about 50°: a focal length approximately equal to the diagonal produces this angle.
Discuss the focal length of a wide-angle lens.
focal length shorter than normal, and angle of view wider.
Discuss the focal length of a telephoto lens.
focal length longer than normal, and angle of view narrower. A distinction is sometimes made between a long-focus lens and a true telephoto lens: the telephoto lens uses a telephoto group to be physically shorter than its focal length.
Macro lenses are designed for
good performance at close distances, e.g., for images of the same size as the object.
When you shine a light upon an subject, part of the photons of light strike the object and bounce right back into the light souce, onto the object again and back. This shows where the light is coming from; shows how shiny the object is. This light is not diffused.
Specular Highlight ... an example would be "catch lights" in the eyes.
If a photograph is called "flat", it is lacking in
Classic portrait lighting patterns used by Master Painters.
Light source is placed at a 45 degree angle up from the tip of the nose. The nose shadow does NOT touch the upper lip. This is a good starting point: adjust it for your specific subject's face.
A gathering of objects that usually have relevance to each other and tell a story.
Composition: good composition has balance and harmony created by strength of line and perspective
A method of dividing a space up into right-angle triangles.
The Golden Mean or Golden Triangle. Placing objects in these spaces maintains balance and composition. As long as you can continue to subdivide a space into right-and triangles, you will be creating spaces into which to put different objects in a composition. You will end up with great balance.
Rule of Thirds
Dividing your composition into thirds... horizontally and vertically. The tic-tac-toe method of finding your focal points. Wherever your lines intersect is a focal point with more power or more command. Achieves a better sense of balance. Higher focal points have command over their surroundings. Lower points are controlled by their surroundings. You can give the subject more power by positioning it higher in the frame.
Vertical composition.... for example .... vertical columns or tall palm trees.
indicate strength and steadfastness.
Diagonal lines indicate
motion. Use diagonal lines to make your images appear to move. Static images can become dynamic by adding wind, a sense of movement; the stronger the diagonal line, the stronger the sense of movement.
Lots of intersecting lines that are all in focus. To avoid this, throw part of the image out of focus.
Repetitive lines indicate....
motion, music, rhythm
help develop relationships between the different compositional elements.
Contrast in its most basic form is
Value. The light will always be drawn to the whitest value. For example a face. However, in high key images, the eye will always be drawn to the darkest area... the deepest black.
Contrast can be
anything that's different. A Circle among Squares; dark against light, Red among a lot of green things. Vertical line among lots of horizontal lines. Yellow among a lot of blue objects.
Colors have values in relationship to white and black
High value colors draw the eye; low value colors do not. High value colors, yellow reds orange draws attention; blue purples (low value colors) less so. Put blues in shadows.
Color is a powerful tool for projecting emotion....
Golden: warmth, antiquity, timelessness. Yellow: high electrical energy, demands attention, "buzzing." Orange is the most festive color .... use a lot of orange highlights for portraits for sense of festivity. Red can be warm and friendly; a lot of red can be passionate... even more red can take you to Warning, Stop; Purple is contemporary youthful, good health, magical. Green is hope and immortality; family portraits surrounded with green; portrays springtime. Blue is stable, calming; it can also be cold and bitter and lonely. Brown is warm organic unpretentious wholesome earthy. Sophisticated is depicted more by grays. Pastels are youthful soft feminine sensitive.
The sharpness of edges or the heaviest concentration of pieces.
Detail. The viewer's eye is drawn to the detail.
Taking several pictures of one picture at different settings.
What is depth of field, and what three things is it controlled by?
Depth of field is what is in focus. It is controlled by aperture, distance and focal length.
What does each consecutive aperture setting do?
It doubles or cuts in half the amount of light hitting the sensor.
How is shutter speed measured?
In fractions of a second.
How is aperture measured?
In f-stops.
What is negative space?
The space around your subject.
Three things make up composition:
1. Positive space (the subject)
2. Negative space (the space around your subject)
3. Value (the amount of reflected light)
Why is f8 at 125 equivalent fo f11 at 60?
reciprocal relationship
The amount of reflected light in your photograph.
Depth of field is also called
plane of focus or focal plane
How far into the focal plane do you focus?
1/3 of the way
18% middle gray test card
A card that reflects a known percentage of light falling on it. This card is used to take accurate exposure meter readings based on a gray tone of 18% reflectance.
Depth of field typically extends
1/3 in front and 2/3rds behind the plane of critical focus. DOF is affected by aperture, focal length and the lens to subject distance.
focal length is measured in ____ and determines .....
determines angle of view and the size of the objects in the image
Fill lighting
Lighting used to illuminate shadows
Lens or lens setting that magnifies an image
Diffuse lighting
soft, low-contrast lighting
What is macro?
When an image is formed from ¼ life-size (1:4) to 5x life-sized (5:1) on your film or sensor, this is considered “macro”
Center weighted meter
Light measuring device that emphasizes the area in the middle of the frame when calculating the correct exposure
Focus lock
a camera feature that lets you freeze the auto focus of the lens at a certain point, when the subject you want to capture is in sharp focus
Matrix metering system
exposure metering system using a multi-segment sensor and programming so various parts of a scene cam be emphasized when calculating the correct exposure
Ansel Adams
started the f64 movement; wanted extremely crisp, natural photos
Piece of optical glass/plastic that is ground and molded to a specific shape for the purpose of focusing images on a film plane.
International Standards Organization
Zoom lens
a lens with several moveable elements that make it capable of many focal lengths within limits
American Standard Association. Film speed of film's exposure index is described by a number using a system originally devised by the ASA. Now an obsolete system as film is described by its ISO value
keeping camera synchronized with a moving object while squeezing shutter release to take the picture
Tonal value
Lightness or tonal value is the light or dakk of a color regardless of its hue. Value arises from the relative luminance of surfaces or lights, the amount of light reaching our eye from a specific color area in contrast to the average or total illumination in our field of view.
What is the sunny day rule?
Also called the Sunny 16 Rule and applicable on a bright sunny day: Set aperture to f/16 and shutter speed nearest to the ISO as possible.

The basic rule is, "On a sunny day set aperture to f/16 and shutter speed to the [reciprocal of the] ISO film speed [or ISO setting] for a subject in direct sunlight."[1] For example:

* On a sunny day and with ISO 100 film / setting in the camera, one sets the aperture to f/16 and the shutter speed to 1/100 or 1/125 second (on some cameras 1/125 second is the available setting nearest to 1/100 second).
* On a sunny day with ISO 200 film / setting and aperture at f/16, set shutter speed to 1/200 or 1/250.
* On a sunny day with ISO 400 film / setting and aperture at f/16, set shutter speed to 1/400 or 1/500.

This means if you were using ISO 100 you would set your aperture at f/16 and shutter speed at 1/100 (or 1/125 second on most modern cameras).

Once you learn the basics of the sunny 16 rule you can adjust it to meet your needs. For example, if you choose to have a wider aperture in order to blur the background you can adjust the settings accordingly.

So lets say you are out on a sunny day and you want to snap a photo of your loved one in the park. Because we know the sunny 16 rule, we know that at ISO 100, setting the camera to f/16 and shutter speed to 1/125 second will give us a good exposure. But in this case we want to blur the background which calls for a wider aperture, what do we do? Simple, just increase the shutter speed one stop for every one stop you open the aperture.

ISO 100 - f/16 - 1/125 sec

will give the same exposure as:

ISO 100 - f/11 - 1/250 sec

Opening the aperture one stop from f/16 to f/11 will allow more light to enter the camera. If we do not change the shutter speed we will get an overexposed image. In order to keep the correct exposure level we must raise the shutter speed the same amount of stops as we opened the aperture. This will work all the way down the line:

Assuming you are using ISO 100 film speed on a sunny day, all of these combinations would work.

f/16 - 1/125 sec
f/11 - 1/250 sec
f/8 - 1/500 sec
f/5.6 - 1/1000 sec
f/4 _ 1/2000 sec

and so on...

Another definition: The sunny 16 rule is a way for photographers to determine a reasonably accurate exposure for pictures in outdoor conditions without consulting a light meter. It is called the "sunny 16 rule" because the rule is applied during sunny days and the aperture of the camera is set to f-number 16.

See this link for step by step instructions for digital cameras.
What are two main functions of f-stop
1. helps determine depth of field
2. controls lighting
What is a "bright" lens.
A bright lens is one with a wide aperture. A bright lens lets in more light.
Distance from your camera to the subject affects.....

The farther the camera is from the subject, the greater the compression; the closer, the smaller the compression.

Contrary to popular belief, it is NOT the focal length of the lens but the DISTANCE FROM THE CAMERA TO THE SUBJECT that affects the compression. All you do when you change the focal lengh is change the frame ... the field of view... the telephone having a smaller field of view.
You have control over the sense of space by choosing where to stand and what focal length to use.

When you're standing far away from the subject, and are zoomed in, you have more of a sense of
When you are standing closer to the subject, and are zoomed out, you have more of a sense that the depth is
You can greatly control the sense of space in the scene by choosing where you stand ... how close or far away you stand from the subject.

For a more intimate sense of depth,

For a more expansive sense of depth
stand back and zoom in;

stand closer and zoom out.
What is a Rectilinear lens?
a lens corrects distortion in a lens (particular wide angle). A rectilinear yields images where straight features, such as the walls of buildings, appear with straight lines, as opposed to being curved. In other words, it is a lens with little or no barrel or pincushion distortion.
The Hand-held Shutter Speed Rule:
Shutter speed should be 1 over your focal length or greater. If it gets slower, you risk camera shake. EX: Focal lengh of 100mm... shutter speed should not go below 1/100th of a second.
We refer to the maximum aperture of the lens as ,,,
the speed of the lens.
A faster lens allows you to....
use faster shutter speeds because of its ability to
open the aperture wider thus gathering more light.
A faster lens is called "faster" because....
it gathers more light in a specific amount of time than a slower lens.
What does 3.5-5.6 aperture mean?
At full wide angle the maximum aperture that you can get is 3.5; at full telephoto the maximum aperture is 5.6. Focal lengths inbetween vary from 3.5 to 5.6.

f1.8 50 mm lens for cannon ... small, light, used if you want to shoot shallow depth of field or want to shoot in lower light.
Your eye has a dynamic rante of about ....... stops worth of light

your digital camera has a dynamic range of about ........stops of light.


Your eye can see almost double the range of light to dark that your camera can capture.

It's very important that you learn to recognize when your scene has more dynamic range than your camera can capture, so that you can make the appropriate exposure adjustments.
The distribution of the brightness values is called ....
the tonal range.
Bryan Peterson's techninque for shooting with a wide angle lens:
1. Point of View: Use the immediate foreground, thus creating tremendous depth and perspective. Go down low to use the foreground.
2. Full Frame Sensor Settings:
a. if your lens is 14mm-24mm, set your focus to 3 feet and your aperture to f22
b. if your lens is 25mm-30mm, set your focu to 7 feet and your aperture to f22

This formula of presetting your distance on your focus will ONLY work with the low angle of views and the apperture of f22.

Tie distance scale is a window on your lense that has both feet and meters indicated. Preset it to the specific feet above. Do not believe the nay-sayers that say that with anything beyond f11, you will lose sharpness and contrast.

Find sensor spots and smudges in Lightroom3 by......
moving Black slider back and forth to find the sweet spot that shows the smudges .... this sweet spot changes on a gradient, like a sky.
When shooting close-up,
1. back up to _______ depth of field;
2. move in closer to ______ depth of field
1. back up to INCREASE depth of field
2. move in closer to DECREASE depth of field

What is a common phenomenon that occurs with very high apertures - at least f18?

Starburst - see https://clickitupanotch.com/5-steps-to-creating-a-starburst-effect-day-or-night/

Starburst - see https://clickitupanotch.com/5-steps-to-creating-a-starburst-effect-day-or-night/