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96 Cards in this Set

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Morpheme

Smallest unit of language that conveys meaning

Phoneme

Smallest unit of sound that conveys meaning

Prevocalic/ onset

consonants before vowel

Postvocalic/ coda

consonants after vowel

vowel

nucleus of syllable

open syllable

ends with vowel

closed syllable

ends with consonant

SODA

Substitutions, Omissions, distortions, additions

Broad transcription

//

Narrow transcription

[]

grapheme

written representation of phoneme

Allophone

phonemes that do not convey meaning

singleton

stand alone consonants

consonant cluster

paired consonants with own identity

how many prevocalic consonants

4

how many postvocalic consonants

3

word positions

initial, medial, final

systems of speech production

respiratory, laryngeal, supralaryngeal

two phases of respiration

inspiration, expiration

breathing occurs due to changes in

air pressure

vibrations per second

Hz

sounds resonate in which 2 cavities

oral, nasal

articulation

movements in speech muscles that modify air stream

main moving structure in oral cavity

tongue

accounts for 50% of consonant contacts

tip of tongue

three articulatory structures

lips, teeth, tongue

raise velum for which sounds

oral sounds

two directions of air flow

egressive, ingressive

main muscles of respiration

diaphragm

glottal air stream used for which sounds

stops

who uses egressive velaric airstream

laryngectimy

lingua-dental

when tongue touches teeth sound

produced with unobstructed vocal tract + vocal fold vibration

vowels

air streams that are impeded. voiced or voiceless

consonants

phone

one speech sound

position of tongue body along vertical plane

height

3 tongue frontness

front, mid, back

3 lip roundings

spread, neutral, round

vowels with changing quality

diphthongs

vowels with one vowel quality

pure vowels/ monophthongs

pure vowel + schwar

rhotic riphthong

where point of constriction occurs

place

how airstream is shaped

manner

presence/ absence of laryngeal vibration

voice

no vibration of folds

voiceless

complete closure of vocal tract

stop

force airstream through narrow constriction causing turbulence and making friction

fricative

shift articulation place

glide

contrastive stress

syllable with extra emphasis to prevent confusion

languages differing in rhythmic quality

stress-timed, syllable timed

lexical stress

change maning by altering stress

loudness

perception of the magnitude or strength of the sound

new info, stress falls on

noun

old info, stress falls on

verb

paralinguistics include

emotional state, speakings style, voice quality

prosody divided into

intonation, tempo, loudness

context

speech more intelligible if context is known

stress perception related to 3 acoustical parameters

duration, fundamental frequency, intensity

Suprasegmentals divided into

prosody, paralinguistics

tempo includes

pause, speaking rate, lengthening

tone

regulation of fundamental frequency to produce contrasts in meaning

undershoot

articulatory movements are reduced

client factors when scoring

age, dialect, physical/ personality characteristics

3 scoring systems

2-way, 5-way, transcription

4 task factors

intelligibility, successive judgements, linguistic context, response requirements

successive judgements

ability to determine right/ wrong after multiple attempts

3 intonation patterns

statement, question, exclamation

2 components of the rhyme of syllable

nucleus, coda

considerations for age

intelligibility, some errors are normal

considerations for dialects

accent reduction must be requested, some things are correct for client not clinician

linguistic context

number/ types linguistic units used

conversational vs. clear speech

clear- enunciate, more phonemes; conversational- relaxed, contractions

client characteristics

big mouth movements= intelligibility; emotional state, cleft pallates

why keep recordings secret?

needs to be natural speech, self-esteem

assimilation

larege changes that cross phoneme boundaries

coarticulation

small changes do not cross phoneme boundaries

regressive

influence a phoneme that proceeds it

progressive

influence phoneme that follows it

accomodation

because of surrounding sounds

why listen to recording through once

desensitize to loud sounds, omit biasing variables (voice characteristics)

why headphones

HIPAA, comfort

live transcription

online

immediate vs. incomplete recognition

immediate- know what they said, incomplete need to hear again

3 assimilation factors

direction, contiguity, degree

vocalization

liquid -> vowel

deaffrication

ch -> sh

reduplication

bottle -> baba

final consonant deletion

cat -> ca

fronting

cat -> tat


fish -> fis

backing

do -> go

gliding

lead -> wead

prevocalic voicing

pig -> big

devoicing

pig -> pik

stridency deletion

sea -> tea

weak syllable deletion

telephone -> tefon

cluster reduction

truck -> ruk