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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

sympathetic nervous system

1. regulates activity of tissues with a diffuse distribution

(sweat glands, smooth muscles of blood vessels and hair follicles) -->NO PARASYMPATHETIC INNERVATION

sympathetic nervous system

fight or flight

-adrenal medulla

Increased HR, relaxation of airways, inhibited digestion, increased metabolism

parasympathetic NS

discrete and selectively directed at individual organs

-excitatory effect on GI tract, slow HR, voiding bladder (micturition)


parasympathetic always stims glandular secretions.

sympathetic stims sweat glands and has minor effects on salivary secretions and some digestion glands

metabolic effects

are only mediated by sympathetic and adrenal medulla

released NE is inactivated by reuptake in the postganglionic sympathetic nerve varicosities

NE is transported back via a sodium-dependent membrane pump (2nd messenger)

receptors function as a coding system

very high specificity (NE wont bind to ACH receptor)

The ANS can produce EXCITATORY AND INHIBITORY responses depending on the tissue innervated

somatic motor innervation of skeletal muscle where the response is EXCITATORY (contraction)

receptors on postganglionic neurons are excited by ____________

NICOTINE. These are called cholinergic receptors of the NICOTINIC type (nicotine receptors)

Action potentials in preganglion always generation an AP in the postganglion

NA and K pass down electrochemical gradient and neuron is depolarized

unlike skeletal muscles, nicotinic receptors can be blocked by _________

hexamethonium (also other ganglionic blockers) that dont effect skeletal NMJ

parasympathetic neuroeffector junctino

ACH is excitatory in the ______________ and inhibitory in the _____________

smooth muscle and glands, heart.

(muscarinic receptors)

2 types of muscarinic receptors

inhibitory (heart)

excitatory (smooth muscle and glands)

Muscarinic in the heart

coupled via G-Protein to a K channel that is opened in the presence of ACH and slows the rate of depolarization

Muscarinic in smooth muscle and glands

muscarinic receptor is coupled with phospholipase C. ACH stimulates IP3, which releases Ca++ causing constriction or secretion

muscarinic receptors are present on the generalized sweat glands which receive a cholinergic ____________ innervation


muscarine poisoning- SLUDGE

Salivation: stimulation of the salivary glands

Lacrimation: stimulation of the lacrimal glands

Urination: relaxation of the internal sphincter muscle of urethra, and contraction of the detrusor muscles


Gastrointestinal upset: Smooth muscle tone changes causing gastrointestinal problems, including diarrhea

Emesis: Vomiting

muscarinic receptors are blocked by

Atropine (muscarinic antagonist)

-blocks the effects of ongoing activation of muscarinic receptors

-reverses muscarine poisioning


inhibition of glandular secretions (dry stuff)


loss of the pupillary light reflex

loss of ability to focus close up (cycloplegia)


Alpha1 receptors

smooth muscles

excitiation - EPI and NE

EPI never gets high enough to be effective

NE-->IP3--> Ca++ release from SR = contraction

Alpha2 receptors

inhibitory. not oneffector organ, its on nerve terminals. Inhibit transmitter release.

Presynaptic inhibition.

*sit onparasympathetic nerve terminals which innervate the GI Tract, inhibits GI.*

Reduces the release of ACH from action potentials.



verysensitive to catecholamines. Epi and NE. Located in heart

effective in lower [conc] than alpha1


relaxation/inhibition of smooth muscle.

founded on bronchial smooth muscle, GI tract, smooth muscle of blood vessels (BV occur along with alpha1)

EPI is more potent than NE (almost ineffective)

Beta receptors are more sensitive to EPI than Alpha

metabolic effects of NE and EPI are mediated by both ________ and _______ receptors

alpha, beta

B1 and B2 receptors are coupled to_______

adenylate cyclase, thus generate cAMP with subsequent activation of protein kinase A and phosphorylation of proteins