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32 Cards in this Set

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What are the four qualities of God? (NOT the Inconsistent triad)

Transcendent, Immanent, Personal, and Impersonal

Define Transcendent

God is beyond the material world

Define Immanent

God is fully present in the material world

Define Personal

God relates to you and knows you

Define Impersonal

God is an impersonal power, distant

Define Monotheism

The belief in one God

Define Ultimate Reality

Something that is the supreme, final, and fundamental power in all reality

Buddhist beliefs on Ultimate Reality?

- All forms that make up the universe are temporary


- Elements come together to create forms


- Eventually all things will cease to exist and life goes onto another form


- Nothing has concrete identity

Taoist beliefs on Ultimate Reality?

- All forces (e.g. Light/Dark, Good/Evil) exist to create balance in the universe


- "Tao": 'way', mysterious unity


- Tao is infinite and eternal, present in all things

Pantheist beliefs on Ultimate Reality?

- Believe that God is simply a way of relating to the universe


- Hold nature in high respect


- Do not believe in a personal/creator God

Egotist beliefs on Ultimate Reality?

- Believe that they are the center of the universe


- Have no direct concern for others, even those who are considered "close"


- Believe that everything happens to fuel their ego or self-importance

What does the Gaia Hypothesis teach about Ultimate Reality?

- Belief that Earth can function as a superorganism


- Earth is capable of self-regulation


- Earth will do whatever needed to maintain favourable conditions for survival

Solipsist beliefs on Ultimate Reality?

- Believe that you can only validate your own mind and the universe


- Only your mind and the universe exist


- All other things are ornaments


- Impossible to validate the existence of anything else other than your mind

Reasons for believing in God?

- A person may have experiences a sense of the presence of something more powerful than themself or humanity


- The belief that something cannot come from nothing (Cosmological Argument)


- Experiencing a sense of wonder when looking at the world (Paley's Watch)


- A person may have had a prayer answered

Possible reasons for rejecting the idea of God?

- The world has major design flaws


- Science explains things without God


- The bible contradicts itself too many times


- Astronomy has shown the infinite cosmos, if God exists in physical form, where?


- Many different religions exist, they can't all be the right one, so which one is correct?

How does William Paley argue the existence of God and what is his argument called?

Paley's Watch argument: "If you came across a watch in an uninhabited place, you would not say that it was created by chance."


- The complexity of the world suggests a creator, which must be God.




Criticism: The world has too many design flaws which lead to death.

How does Blaise Pascal argue the existence of God and what is his argument called?

Pascal's Wager: You gamble your life on whether God exists or not.


- If you bet on God not existing and he doesn't, no consequence. But if he does exist, you will be sent to Hell and suffer.


- If you bet on God existing and he doesn't, no consequence. But if he does exist, you join him in heaven and lose nothing.


- This means that you should believe in God

How does St. Thomas Aquinas argue the existence of God and what is his argument called?

The Cosmological Argument: Everything has a cause, and if traced back, the first cause is God.


- "Something" cannot come from "Nothing", therefore there must have been a first cause.




Criticism: Who created God? Who is to say that the universe had a beginning and End?

What reasons did David Hume give for why miracles CANNOT be proven?

1) Laws of nature cannot be broken


2) Not enough miracles reported


3) Miracles are made up by religious people to prove that they are right


4) Human nature loves the "fantastic"


5) Those who report miracles are 'uneducated', 'unreliable' and 'not trustworthy'

What flaws are there with Hume's ideas?

- Many people who experienced religious miracles were not religious (e.g. Saul)


- Hume is too vague, how many miracles need to be reported to prove their existence?


- It is wrong to assume that all people who report miracles are all the above things

Features of a Religious Experience?

Ineffable: Can't describe it




Transient: Temporary, time is relative




Noetic: Feels as though 'victim' learned sthg.




Passive: Without conscious control, it is done to you

Possible causes of Religious Experiences?

- Guilt/Fear




- Cowardice

Why do some Christians reject the idea of Evolution? (The Origin of Species)

- God created man in his image, so if he created monkeys, that's somewhat offensive


- God created humans, we did not evolve over the course of millions of years

Define Moral Evil

Suffering dealt by humans onto another living being as a result of a morally wrong action

Define Natural Evil

Suffering caused by the way things are in the world, for example, earthquakes

Define Theodicy

An argument used to justify the goodness of God when there is suffering in the world

According to Christians, why is there Evil in the world?

Because Eve ate from the apple tree after being tempted by Satan disguised as a snake.

What is the Free Will Defence?

Free will is not the reason for our suffering, we are able to choose between wrong and right. So it is our own fault if we do the wrong things and cause suffering.

What is original sin?

Every human born after Adam and Eve was born with the tendency to sin.

What did Stephen Fry say about Evil, Suffering, and God?

"Why should I respect a capricious, mean minded, stupid God who creates a world that is so full of injustice and pain?"

What did Dostoyevsky say about Evil, Suffering, and God?

"My free will is not worth the suffering"

What did Christopher Hitchens say about Evil, Suffering, and God?

"If God really wanted people to be free of wicked thoughts, he should have taken more care to invent a different species"