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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Theory of the Right
Tries to tell us what is morally right and what is morally wrong. Divided into telelogical and deontological.
Theory of the Good
Tries to tell us what is morally good/bad.
Virtue Theory
Divided into Intellectual and Moral Virtue.
Intellectual virtue= contemplating God.
Moral virtue=
Finding mean between excess and deficiency
Social Contract Theory
Equal rights. life and liberty
Feminist Theory
Contradicts all theories
Actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.

In The Office, Dwight kills Angela's cat and shows no remorse because he is an advocate of Utilitarianism. It does not produce wool or milk so it is useless and it is moral to kill it.
Ethical Egoism
All actions ought to be self-interested
Psychological Egoism
All human actions are self-interested.
Ring of Gyges
Shepherd finds magic ring. turns him invisible. Both a thief and good man would act the same.
Descriptive theories
Attempt to explain why people judge things to be good or bad
Normative (Prescriptive) theories
Attempts to provide a set of ethics that people should follow.
Arguments for Psychological Egoism
1. Even if an action appears outwardly altruistic, that person is still doing what they want to do, which is selfish in itself.

2. People are just doing what makes them feel good, so no action is unselfish.
Arguments against Psychological Egoism
Many stupid actions are neither self-interested nor altruistic. (smoker who wants to quit)
What a person ought to do.
How a person should relate to other people given their fundamental equality.
Arguments against ethical egoism
Hard to do. Each person has their own set of morals, so we cannot exactly refute ethical egoism. If someone truly finds nothing wrong in harming others, then we cannot prove to them that they shouldn't act like that.
What's the connection between religion and morality?
A society without a sense of morality could have religion - including a relationship with non-moral gods.
We have many motives besides religious ones.
Divine Command Theory of Morality
An action is right because God commands it
An action is wrong because God forbids it
Problems with Divine Command Theory
God doesn't command that we should play baseball, so does that make it wrong?

Also, times have changed since Bible was written.
Arthur's view on relationship between morality and religion
Morality is inherently social, and this includes a relationship with God (provided such a relationship is possible)
Aquinas' view of natural law
God has a rational plan- everything has a purpose. We can discern natural law through the use of reason
Hume's view of foundation of morality
According to Hume, morality is based on sentiment. If we feel like something is wrong, it is probably wrong.
Hume's "is-ought" argument
Hume thinks it is a mistake to argue that because something "is" the case, it "ought to be" the case

Can be refuted. Hitler wanted to kill Jews. Jews are alive, so Jews ought to be alive. In Hume's opinion, Hitler's opinion would be valid.
Ethical Relativism
What is morally right or wrong depends on what culture one lives in.
Individual Relativism
What is morally right or wrong depends on one's own beliefs and values.
Problems with Utilitarianism
1) It has problems accounting for individual rights
2) It has problems accounting for matters of justice
3) It is often unclear how utility is to be measured
Consequentialist Theory
A morally right action is an action that produces good consequences (The ends justify the means)
Non-Consequentialist Theory
Some actions are morally wrong regardless of their consequences
Kant's Categorical Imperative (2 formulations)
1) Act only on that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should be a universal law
2) Act in such a way that you always treat humanity... never simply as a means but always at the same time as an end.
Problems with Kant's Categorical Imperative
Does not explain what it is to treat a person as an end.
Aristotle - Highest good
Happiness= Activity of soul in accordance of virtue throughout a lifetime
Vatican's views on sex and sexuality
Sex is only morally right in the context of marriage. There is a finality in consummating a marriage. The purpose of sexual organs is to have sex after marriage
Vatican's views on homosexuality and masturbation
Both lack the "essential and indispensable finality" so they are both "intrinsically disordered"

Both contradict the finality of the faculty.
Bradshaw's 3 levels of opposition to homosexuality
1) Opposition to the gay rights movement
2) Opposition to the homosexual lifestyle
3) Opposition to the homosexual act
Bradshaw's argument of moral space
Every human has a moral space that heterosexual sex fits into.
Arguments against moral space
There is no such things as a sexual "fit". Prostitution and rape fit into the "moral space" but they're obviously not moral.
Bradshaw's argument about infertile couple
Homosexuality is wrong simply because two men aren't built that way. Infertile couples are not wrong because they were, and special circumstances doesn't allow them to have children.
Schulman's feminist argument against gay marriage
Marriage is based around a woman's eventual fertility, so gay marriage is an oxymoron. Nobody is getting pregnant so it isn't a marriage.
Rauch's "Hayekian View"
Marriage is falling apart. If we add M/M or F/F to M/F, we are breaking the very foundation of the most rooted tradition in human history.
Rauch: social point of marriage
The point of marriage is that it helps to "settle males". It wraps a seal of approval around the family. Power of marriage is social, not just legal.
What would happen if marriage was left to religion and no long state recognized?
Marriage would no longer have the finality it has now. They wouldn't be accepted by everyone since not everyone is religious.
The Quickening
First time you feel your baby move
Noonan's view on fetuses. When does a fetus become a person?
Noonan says conception is when a fetus becomes a person because they receive a genetic code.
Thomson's approach to abortion
Doesn't believe fetus is person upon conception. Abortion is fine, except if for example 7 months pregnant and randomly decide to get one.