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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Why does Kuhn's description of change within normal Science not fit with standard empiricist attitudes towards scientific change?

Some ideas are protected from falsification

Em: All ideas are to change re all the time.

All theoretical claims are always subject to falsification

Why does Kuhn's description of change within revolutionary science not fit with standard empiricist attitudes towards scientific change?

Change isn't settled by appeal to evidence or argument

What is a major difficulty with Kuhn's account of crisis states within scientific communities?

-Confidence of scientists shaken

-Openness to more radical ideas

-role for non-empirical consideration

What is relativism?

Whether if something is true or false

What does it mean to suggest that Kuhn was a relativist about scientific knowledge?

Scientific theories can only be good or bad (relative) to some paradigms

What is an anomaly?

a violation of the "paradigm-induced expectations that govern normal science"

Why are rival paradigms Incommensurable, according to Kuhn?

there is no completely neutral standpoint from which one can judge the relative worth of two paradigms

-lacking a common measure

Why does Kuhn describe normal science as puzzle-solving?

You assume there is always a solution

What two conditions are required, according to Kuhn, for one paradigm to replace another?

-Crisis State

-New Paradime

Trofim Lysenko was an influential biologist in which country?

Soviet Union

Why did Lysenko gain such influence?

Criticized by other scientist but loved by communist

Who is Nikolai Vavilov?

A scientist sentenced to death by Lynsenko ( [] camp)

Why did some sociologists believe that the sociology of science was the appropriate discipline for understanding the nature of science?

Advocates Strong Program

*What does it mean to say an answer or is underdetermined by available evidence

*There is more than one thoery

What’s the difference between global and local underdetermination?

Global: everything

Local: Little bit

What’s the significance of Stanford’s objection that global underdetermination is a form of radical scepticism?

Might be dreaming doesn't influence how your conclusions or beliefs

How worried should we be by the threat of local underdetermination?

"know local"

David Crews formed his reputation as a competent biologist through his studies of which species?

Whiptail Lizard

Which feature of the whiptailed lizard was David Crews the first to ascribe real significance to?

Reproduce Parthenogenetically

How did David Crews’ critics account for this same behavioural feature?

being kept in captivity

What objections were raised against Crews’ work?

not reliable, not observed in field, method

Are Collins and Pinch right that empirical evidence was unable to satisfactorily resolve the debate?

yes *****

Explain, in general terms, how Collins and Pinch anticipated the debate between Crews and his critics would eventually be resolved?

through social factors

What pieces of empirical evidence have come to light that support Crews’ hypothesis?

-Reproductively inactive lizards do not pseudocopulate

-Lizards kept in groups, and conducting pseudocopulatory behaviour, are far more fecund that lizards kept in isolation

What does it mean to say that the history of science is contingent?

The science from years ago is not still always relevant (Bleeding)

What are the four humors of humoral medicine?

Blood, black bile, yellow bile, Phlegm

What is phlogiston?

fire started (theory of chemistry)

In what decade did scientists accept the idea that the continents are in motion?


Why is the fact that scientists have been wrong before a poor reason to reject specific scientific conclusions from today’s science?

because no factual evidence, opinion from dislikement

What, according to Popper characterizes a pseudoscientific theory?

it is one that is not testable. it also looks for evidence that supports its claims, where science sets up to challenge it. it seeks confirmations


Contains assumptions about what the world contains and how scientific inquiry should be pursued

Radical Skepticism

is the philosophical position that knowledge is most likely impossible