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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pre-Socratic philosopher who taught that reality is ultimately composed of an indeterminate something that we can never know directly through experience.
Anaximander (611-547? B.C.E.)
Pre-Socratic philosopher who taught that the basic element of reality was air and that all things in the universe are different forms of air.
Anaximenes (6th century B.C.E.)
The "Awakened One"; a name for the founder of the ___ religion; the ancient Indian prince, Siddharta Gautama, after his enlightenment.
Buddha (6th century B.C.E.)
Ancient Chinese mystics whose doctrine was that the "Dao" or "Way" was the ineffable underpinning of existence.
Dao-De-Jing Poets (including Lao-zi) (5th century B.C.E.)
Pre-Socratic philosopher who taught that reality is divisible into small "atoms," which combine to make up all things but which themselves are eternal and indivisible.
Democritus (5th century B.C.E.)
French philosopher who is usually considered the "father of modern philosophy."
Descartes, René (1596"1650)
Pre-Socratic philosopher who taught that the basic element of reality was fire and that all things are in constant flux but yet are unified by an underlying logic or logos.
Heraclitus (5th century B.C.E.)
He has been called "the last of the universal geniuses." He was one of the inventors of the calculus, the father of modern formal linguistics.
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm von (1646"1716)
The religious mystic who believed that numbers were the essence of all things. One of the Pre-Socratics.
Pythagoras (6th"5th century B.C.E.)
Pre-Socratic philosopher who taught that reality was eternal and unchanging and that therefore we could not know it as such.
Parmenides (5th century B.C.E.)
Socrates (470"399 B.C.E.)
Need to fill.
The first known Greek philosopher, who taught that all things were ultimately composed of water.
Thales (6th century B.C.E.)
Plato (427"347 B.C.E.)
Need to fill.
Ancient Persian reformer and prophet of the first monotheistic religion, Zoroastrianism.
Zarathustra (Zoroaster) (6th century B.C.E.)
Ancient Chinese sage and founder of the _____ religion. His doctrine sought "gentlemanly conduct," which was to be achieved through adherence to ritual.
Confucius (6th"5th century B.C.E.)
Confucius, a Chinese thinker in the sixth century BCE, insisted that thinking is our fundamental nature. (T/F)
For Leibniz, space and time are substances. (T/F)
Western philosophy is said to begin with Thales. (T/F)
Plato postulated the pre-existence of the soul to account for our knowledge of Forms. (T/F)
Descartes thought that substances were unknowable. (T/F)
Spinoza believed that there were many substances. (T/F)
Aristotle's conception of substance was not used by any other philosopher. (T/F)
Aristotle also held Plato's theory of the Forms. (T/F)
False. Aristotle believed in Forms, but the forms within the self, not in a an alternate realm.
Monism is the attempt to reduce all the things in the world to things of one kind. (T/F)
The god of Zoroastrianism is Ahura Mazda. (T/F)
Pythagoras believed that the universe was made of.
The creator of monads.
_blank_ are central to Plato's metaphysics.
Pantheism is the idea that...
God is everything.
Plato believes that truth must be...
Universal and eternal
Define "apeiron".
Apeiron is translated as "the indefinite." The apeiron was a chaos or a void, which yielded the variety of things in the world.
Anaximenes thought that the notion of apeiron was too mysterious and decided that everything is composed of _blank_.
The attempt to reduce all of the varied things in the world to one kind of thing is called...
Heraclitus argued that _blank_ was the stuff of reality.
The idea that there is more than one component in the composition of the world.
Pythagoras believed what?
That numbers were the real nature of things, and he taught his students to worship the mathematical order of the universe. He was one of the first philosophers to place emphasis on logic and thought.
Parmenides believed what?
Reality must be eternal and unchanging, he concluded that the world of our experience cannot be real, because it is always changing.
Metaphysics is the study of
The way that the world really is, and the first principles of things.
Lao-zi was a religious mystic who rejected Confucian faith and founded
Daoism, Dao, or Tao
Among the most important teachings of Buddha are the Four Noble Truths.
(1) All is suffering. (2) The root of suffering is desire, attachment, and personal clinging. (3) There is a way to eliminate suffering. (4) The way to do this is to follow The Eightfold Noble Path: right thought, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration or meditation.
_blank_ are the ultimate reality, and they are eternal and unchanging (according to Plato).
"Participation" comes from which philosopher, and which theory?
Plato's theory of Forms.
Aristotle believed that the universe as a whole and all things in it have a purpose, a goal. This is called what?
What is infinite regress?
Where causes rely on each other in an infinite trail with no "ultimate cause." Teleological arguments go on forever.